A Visit to Italy - Feast for the Tournament of Chivalry

Introduction
The Menu
Sources
Recipes in Italian
Translations of the recipes in English
Redacted recipes
Acknowledgments

Introduction

This is my second major SCA feast, and as before I am concentrating the food to my area of interest.  The many vast and untapped resources of medieval and renaissance Italy.  The organization of the meal overall is based on the many menus translated from Bartolomeo Scappi who wrote one of the most complete treatises on cooking and food in Italy in the 16th Century (for menus from Scappi please see my homepage for links)  Many of the recipes for this feast are sourced from this one book.  The organization of the feast into cold and hot services assists the cook, the kitchen and the servers and allows for a great many dishes to be prepared in advance of service without loss of quality or flavor. Another advantage which Italian cookbooks offer over their English counterparts is the vast number of recipes for vegetables and fruit, which were served both raw and cooked.  I hope with this feast to satisfy the needs of many, those on the Atkins diet, those fighters for whom the two food groups are food and what food eats, those in search of a tasty meal, lacto-ovo vegetarians and those who prefer to see period food.  Where possible period recipes have been used, but if the thought of period food scares you I would say, don't worry it's Italian, and everyone loves Italian food .  If you have allergy concerns please contact me as soon as possible, so that I can be aware of any special requirements.

Lady Helewyse de Birkestad, CW
helewyse@yahoo.com

The Menu

Primo Servitio di Credenza                                                     First service from the Sideboard.
Mostaccioli alla Milanese                                                               Milan style Biscotti [1]
Uva fresca                                                                                     Fresh grapes [1]
Insalata misto                                                                                 Mixed green salad [2]
Polli arrostite                                                                                  Roast chickens [1]
Salza di sugo di pome granati et limoncelli                                       Sauce of pomegranate and lemon [1]
Insalata di sparagi                                                                          Asparagus salad [2]
Torta d’herbe alla Lombarda                                                          Lombard style herb tart [1]
Olive verde                                                                                    Green olives [1]
Pane e oglio                                                                                   Bread and oil  (On Table throughout meal)

Primo Servitio di Cucina                                                             First Service from the Kitchen
Schiena di porco arrostito                                                              Roasted Pork Shoulder [1]
Cipolle cotto con il arrosto                                                             Onions cooked with the roast[1]
Maccaroni alla Romanesca                                                             Roman style Macaroni [1]
Salza di visciole                                                                              Sour cherry sauce [1]
Minestra di carote                                                                          Dish of carrots [2]

Secondo Servitio di Cucina                                                         Second Service from the Kitchen
Stufare del boue                                                                             Stewed beef [1]
Minestra di riso con oglio et zaffarano                                             Dish of rice with oil and saffron [1]
Minestra di Broccoli asciutti                                                            Dry dish of broccoli [1]
Minestra di Fonghi                                                                          Braised mushrooms [2]

Secondo Servitio di Credenza                                                     Second Service from the Sideboard
Suppa di pere                                                                                 Pears cooked in wine [1]
Pasta sfogliata                                                                                 Layered pastry [1]
Neve di latte                                                                                   A dish of snow [3]
Torta bianca                                                                                   Ginger flavored cheesecake [6]
Cascio                                                                                            Cheese [1]
Sorbetti di aranche et fiore                                                               Sherbet with orange and orange flower water [4]

A finire                                                                                         To finish
Finnocchio dolce verde mondo il gambo                                         Green fennel [5]
Stecchi in piatti con acqua rosa                                                       Toothpicks in plates with rose water [1]
Conditi, & confettioni a beneplacito                                                Candies and confits to ones choice [1]

RETURN TO TOP

Sources

1. Scappi, B., Opera : (dell' arte del cucinare).  Reprint. First published: Opera di M. Bartolomeo Scappi. Venice, 1570. 1981, Bologna: Arnaldo Forni. [20], 436 leaves [ca. 888 p.], [28] p. of plates.
2. Castelvetro, G., Brieve racconto di tutte le radici, di tutte l'erbe e di tutti i frutti che crudi o cotti in Italia si mangiano. 1614, In Londra, M.DC.XIV.
3. Gallo, A., Le Vinti giornate dell'agricoltvra et de'piaceri della villa. 1575, Venetia: appresso Camillo & Rutilio Borgominieri.
4. David, E., Harvest of the Cold Months.  The social history of ice and ices. 1995, New York: Penguin Books.
5. Romoli, D., La Singolare dottrina di M. Domenico Romoli. 1593, Venezia: Gio. Battista Bonfadino.
6. Benporat, C., Cucina italiana del Quattrocento. 1996, Firenze: L.S. Olschki.   Ricettario di Maestro Martino.  MS. Urbinate Latino.

Recipes in Italian

Mostaccioli alla Milanese
Insalata misto
Polli arrostite
Salza di sugo di pome granate et limoncelli
Insalata di sparagi
Torta d’herbe alla Lombarda
Schiena di porco arrostito
Maccaroni alla Romanesca
Salza di visciole
Minestra di carote
Stufare del boue
Minestra di riso con oglio et zaffarano
Minestra di Broccoli asciutti
Minestra di Fonghi
Suppa di pere
Pasta sfogliata
Neve di latte
Torta bianca
Sorbetti di aranche et fiore

The following items are added to the menu based on their appearance in menus from Scappi and Romoli:  Fresh grapes, olives, cheese, scented toothpicks, green fennel, candies and confits. No recipes are given for these items.

Per fare morselletti, cioè mostaccioli alla Milanese [1]
Cap CXLII.  Sesto libro folio 420.
Piglinosi quindeci uove fresche, & battanosi in una cazzuola, & passnosi per lo setaccio con due libre & mezza di zuccaro fino fatto in polvere, & mezza oncia di anici crudi, overo pitartamo pesto, & un grano o due di muschio fino, & mettanosi con ese libre due & mezza di farina, & battasi ogni cosa per tre quarti d’hora, di modo che venga la pasta come quella delle frittelle, & lascisi riposare per un quarto d’hora, & ribbattasi un’altra volta, poi si habbiano apparecchiati fogli di carta fatti a lucerne onti, overo tortiere altre di sponde con cialde sotto senza essere bagnate di cosa alcuna, & dapoi mettasi essa pasta dentro le lucerne, o tortiere, & non sia d’altezza piu che la grossezza d’un dito, & subito si spolverizzino di zuccaro, & ponganosi nel forno che sia caldo, overo quelle delle tortiere, cuocanosi come le torte, & come tal pasta sarà sgonfiata, & haverà in tutto persa l’humidità, & sarà alquanto sodetta, cioè sia come una focaccia tenera, cavisi della tortiera o lucerna, & subito si taglino con un coltello largo & sottile, a fette larghe due dita, & lunghe a beneplacito, & rimettanosi nel forno con fogli di carta sotto a biscottarsi, rivoltandoli spesso, però il forno non sia tanto caldo come di sopra, & come saranno bene asciutte, cavinosi, & conservinosi perche sono sempre migliori il secondo giorno che il primo, & durrano un mese nella lor perfettione.

Dalle mischianze, ottima insalata. [2]
Ora, tra tutte le insalate che in questa stagione si mangiano, le mischianze, quali andrò notando, portano di bontà il vanto, e nella seguente maniera si fanno. Si piglia una parte delle spuntanti foglie della menta riccia, quelle del nasturzio, del basilico, della cidronella, le cime della pimpinella, del dragone, i fiori e le foglie della borana, i fiori dell’erba stella, i germogli del rinascente finocchio, le foglie della ruvola gentile e dell’acetosa e i fiori del rammerino, alcune violette mamole, le più tenere foglie overo i cuori della lattuca e simiglianti. Queste rar’erbe, ben nettate che fiano d’ogni secca foglia e in più acque ben lavate e un po’ poco asciutte con un mondo pannicello di lino, si acconciano come ormai s’è, parlando d’altre, insegnato.
Ma perché non è assai l’aver molte buone erbe per fare che la insalata riesca buona, conciosia cosa che la bontà di quella altretanto consista in saperla fare, giudico esser ben fatto, anzi di proceder più oltre, dimostrar qui il modo di farla. Laonde dico che monta molto a saperla lavare e poi condirla, essendo che molte cucinatrici e cuochi oltramontani, avendo l’erbe preste a lavare, quelle in un secchio pieno d’acqua overo in alcuno altro vaso mettono, e dopo averle in quello un poco dimenate e slavacchiate, non le tirino fuori di là colle mani, ma colino l’acqua, il che fa che la rena, che attorno l’erbe si sta, vi si rimanga, onde, nel mangiarsi poi l’insalata, si sente con non picciol noia sotto i denti; perciò conviene che la persona che la dèe fare, avendosi prima le mani lavate, metta l’erbe in un catino pien d’acqua, e dopo averle quivi bene dimenate, le cavi fuori, e ciò facci almen tre o quattro fiate, e così vedrassi nel fondo del vaso la rena, e ogni altra lordura si resterà; e poscia averle bene sgocciolate e alquanto asciutte, come a dietro ho detto, si pongono nel piatto ove prima un poco di sale sia, e in porvi le erbe vi si dèe andare spargendo sopra del sale e, dopo, l’olio con larga mano; e ciò fatto, si vogliono rivolgere molto bene con le dita ben monde, overo col coltello e con la forchetta, ch’è più graziosa maniera; e questo si fa acciò che ogni foglia pigli l’olio, e non fare come i Tedeschi e altre straniere generazioni fanno, li quali, appresso avere un po’ poco l’erbe lavate, in un mucchio le mettono nel piatto e su vi gittano un poco di sale e non molto olio, ma molto aceto, senza mai rivolgerla, non avendo eglino altra mira che di piacere all’occhio; ma noi Italici abbiam più riguardo di piacere a monna bocca. Altri fan vie peggio, che così pure ammucchiate con sale e solo aceto in tavola le mandino, onde convien poi quivi porvi l’olio, ché l’erbe di già abbeverate d’aceto non posson pigliar l’olio; né rimovendole mai, la maggior parte di quelle si rimangano pura erba, buona da dare a’ paperi. Perciò a farle buone conviene, postovi l’olio, rivolgerle, e poi porvi l’aceto, e da capo rivolgerla tutta, e chi così farà e non la troverà buona, dolgasi di me; e che sia vero che molto sale e olio vi si richiede e poco aceto, ecco il testo della legge insalatesca, che dice:
Insalata ben salata,
poco aceto e ben oliata;
e chi contro a così giusto comandamento pecca è degno di non mangiar mai buona insalata.

Per arrostire il cappone nello spedo in diversi modi [1]
Cap CXXIIII, secondo libro, folio 54
Ogni volta che il cappon sarà giovane, per arrostire sarà sempre migliore del vecchio, ma volendo arrostire il vecchio, é necessario, che sia alquanto frollo.  E spiumato, & netto che sarà delli suoi interiori, pieno o voto, si sarà rifare nell'acqua bollente, & rifatto che sarà, si caverà, & s'impillotterà di pillotti di lardo minuti: Ma se sarà pieno, si potrà far senza.  Inspedisi poi, & facciasi cuocere con foco temperato nel principio, & come comincierà a gocciare diasigli il foco gagliardetto, accioche nel cuocere rimanga piu morbio, & se non sarà impillottato, bagnisi con lo strutto liquefatto o lardo colato, & cotto che sarà servasi caldo con sugo di melangole o di limoncelli sopra.  Si potrà ancho arrostire il detto cappone nello spedo quando sarà giovane nel modo, che si arroste il faggiano nel Cap 136.

Per far salza di sugo di melangole & limoncelli [1]
Cap CCLXX, secondo libro, folio 94
Piglinosi oncie quattro di sugo di limoncelli, & una libra di sugo di melangoli forti, o di mezo sapore, & metasi a bollire la parte piu chiara in una caxxuola con una libra di zuccaro fino, & un quarto di cannella intera, & due chiodi di garofali, dandoli la cottura nel modo ordinato nel prossimo Cap. Della salza di vino di mele grannate in modo che siano calate delle tre parti le due.

Degli sparagi[2]
Appresso, anzi per poco nel medesimo tempo, vengono gli sparagi, frutto, o vogliamlo chiamare simplice, vie migliore del lupulo. Questi vengono d’alcuni mangiati crudi col sale e col pepe, ma, cotti e acconci come de’ lupuli vengo di dire, a me piacciono molto più. Altri di loro pigliano i più grossi, e prima d’olio gli ungono bene, e poi, avendovi sparto alquanto sale e pepe, sopra un tagliero gli rivolgono per quel sale impeperato, e così acconci sopra la graticola ad arrostir gli mettono, et è un delicato mangiare, massime spargendovi sopra sugo di naranzi. È lo sparago sanissimo, non facendo male a parte veruna del corpo umano, e sopra il tutto è ottimo per coloro che con pena orinano, perch’è aperitivo molto.

Per fare torta d’herbe alla Lombarda[1]
Cap 92, quinto libro, folio 360
Taglinisi biete minute con i coltelli, & si lavino in piu acque, lasciandole scolare da se in un foratoro, perche spremendole n’escie il sugo, che è la sua bontà, & poi si pigli una libra di cascio Parmigiano, overo di Riviera grasso grattato, e libra una di ricotta pecorina fresca, overo di vacca, un’oncia tra pepe, & cannella, un quarto tra garofali, & noci moscate, quattro oncie di butiro fresco, & sei ove, & fatta che sarà la compositione d’ogni cosa, habbisi la tortiera onta di buttio con un sfoglio di pasta fatto di fior di farina, acqua rosa, zuccaro, & butiro, rossi d’ova, & acqua tiepida, & pongasi la compositione in la tortiera, cuoprendola con un’altro sfoglio di pasta cresputo, facciasi cuocere al forno, o sotto il testo, & servasi calda, se si vorrà ponere zuccaro in la compositione, & di sopra, sarà in arbitrio.

Per cucinare la schiena del porco domestico in diversi modi [1]
Cap XCIX, secondo libro, folio 46
Si il porco sarà giovane, la schiena si potrà arrostire nello spedo con la cotica, & senza, & con cipolle spaccate nella iotta, leqali si fanno cuocere con il grasso che cola da essa, quando si cuoce.  Et nella detta schiena si potranno mettere alcuni rami di rosmarino, & prima che is ponga nello spedo, si spolverizzerà di sale, & pitartamo pesto.  Si potrebbe ancho fare stare la detta schiena in adobbo fatto di aceto, mosto cotto, spigoli d'aglio, & pitartamo per un giorno, & poi farla cuocere nello spedo nel soprascritto modo, servendola calda con sapor sopra, fatto del medesimo adobbo, & se della detta schiena ne volessero fare brisavoli alla Venitiana, si haveria da tagliare costa per costa, & battersi le dette coste con la costa del coltello, & spolverizzar di sale, pepe ammaccato, & pitartamo pesto, & come fossero state per un'hora l'una sopra l'altra si doveriano cuocere su la graticola a lento foco, rivoltandole spesso, & cotte che fossero, si servirebbeno con sugo di melangole, o altri sapore sopra.

Per far minestra di maccaroni alla Romanesca [1]
Cap CLXXIIII, secondo libro, folio 78
Impastisi una libra di fior di farina con oncie quattro di mollica di pane bianco, che sia stata in molle in latte di capra tepido, & quattro rossi d’uova, due oncie di zuccaro passato per lo setaccio, & impastata che sarà essa pasta in modo che non sia troppo liquida, & mescolata che sarà per lo spatio di mezo hora sopra una tavola facciasene sfoglio con il bastone, lasciando asciugare esso sfoglio, con il ruzzolo di ferro o di legno, taglinosi i maccaroni, & fatti che saranno, lascinosi asciugare, & volendoli cuocere con acqua semplice, faccioanosi cuocere in un vaso grande, ove sia acqua assai, & sale abastanza, & quando l’acqua bollirà, ponganosi dentro I maccaroni, percioche se si ponessero in acqua fredda andarebbeno al fondo, & farebbeno una pasta, come fa ogni sorte di pasta tirata, bolliti che saranno per meza hora, facciasis il saggio se saranno teneri, & non essendo lascinosi bollire fin’ a tanto che siano ben cotti, & cotti che saranno habbiasi apparecchiato un piatto grande d’argento, o di stagno, o di terra spolverizzato grossamente di cascio grattato, zuccaro, & cannella, & fette di provatura fresca, & pongasi una parte d’essi maccaroni che siano bene scolati dall’acqua, & sopra essi maccaroni spolverizzisi cascio, zuccaro, & cannella, & fetter di provatura, & bocconcini di butiro.  In questo modo se ne faranno tre fuoli, & si sbrufferanno di acqua di rose, & si copriranno con un’altro piatto, & si lascieranno stare su le ceneri calde o in forno caldo temperatamente per meza hora, & si serviranno caldi.

Per far salza di visciole [1]
Cap CCLXXVII, secondo libro, folio 95
Piglinosi visciole fresche spiccate dal zevolo: & ponganosi in un vaso di rame stagnato, o di terra invetriato, & faccianosi bollir cosi asciutte pian piano senza mescolarle, & come saranno ben crepate, colinosi per un setaccio senza spremerle, bastando il solo sugo che haveranno fatto.  Et per ogni libra del detto sugo pongasi una libra di zuccaro fino, & meza quarto di cannella intera, & un quarto tra pepe, garofani, & noci moscate peste, & facciasi bollire ogni cosa inseime, schiumandola con il cocchiaro di legna o d'argento, & lascisi bollire fin'a tanto, che faccia boccula, facendo la prova come s'è fatta della salza regale ne Cap. 267.  Et si conserverà in vasi di terra invetriati.

Delle carote e delle rape. [2]
Usiamo, oltre alle già dette, le carote rosse e gialle, e così le rape pur cotte, e vogliono sempre il pepe oltre agli altri condimenti. Facciamo delle rape ottime minestre, oltre al cuocerle alla maniera di questo paese, facendole cuocere, ma prima in sottili particelle tagliate, in brodo buono; e cotte, sopra vi gittiamo cacio vecchio grattugiato e pepe. Che è quanto delle insalate del verno mi sappia ricordare; perciò mi passerò a ragionare de’ frutti, che in così fredda stagione usiamo.

Per stufare in forno over sottestare il lombo del boue, o della vaccina [1]
Piglisi il lombo del boue, o della vaccina di quella bontà, ch'è detto di sopra, con una parte del suo grasso, & un poco del filo della schiena, & dapoi che sarà netto di quelle pellicine, sbruffisi di vino, & aceto bianco, e spolverizzisi di pepe, garofani, sal trito, cannella,  zengevero, & pitartamo, over fiore di finocchio, & lascisi stare in un vaso di terra in soppressa per quattro hore con un poco di vin greco, o di malvagia, sapa, & aceto rosato, pongasi poi al forno con quella medesima compositione in quel medesimo vaso, giungendovi un poco di lardo battuto, & fettoline di presciutto, & come sarà piu di mezo cotto, havendolo rivoltato alcune volte, vi si porranno prugne, & visciole secche, essendo il verno, ma l'estade vi si potranno porre le nuove, & cotto che sarà servasi cosi caldo con le medesime materie, & brodo sopra.  In questo medesimo modo si puo cuocere ancho sottestato.

Per far minestra di riso con latte di mandole o con oglio[1]
Cap CCXXI, Terzo libro, folio 150
Piglisis il riso di Lombardia o di Salerno, nettisi, & lavisi con acqua tepida, & accioche rimanga piu bianco, & si cuoca piu presto facciasi stare in molle nell’acqua tepida per un’hora.  Cavisi, & lascisi asciugare al Sole, o al calor del foco lontan dalla fiamma, accioche non divenga rosso, & pongasi nel foco in un vaso di terra o di rame con tant acqua che stia coperto, & come haverà sorbito l’acqua, pongasi il latte di mandole con zucaro fino in piu volte, & facciasi finir di cocere di modo che resti sodo, & come sarà cotto, servasi con zuccaro & canella sopra.  Si potrà ancho alle volte servire per ginestrata, havendolo passatao per lo setaccio con piu zuccaro, & cannello pesta, & zafferano, & facendolo ricuocere con un poco di acqua di rose, & malvagia, ma volendolo con oglio, non occurre altro che metterlo nella pignata con oglio, acqua, sale, & zafferano, & nell’ultimo giungervi un poco di herbette, o cipollette soffritte, & in tutti i modi vuole esser servita calda la minestra.

Per cuocere Broccoli asciutti. [1]
Cap. CCXXXVII, Terzo libro, folio 153
Piglinosi li broccoli dal mese di Febraro per tutto Marzo netti delle frondi, & habbiasi la parte piu tenera che non sia fiorita, & facciasi bollir l’acqua con sale, & come i broccoli saranno accommodati in mazzuoli ponganosi in quella acqua bollente, & non si facciano troppo cuocere, ma cavinosi, & sciolganosi, & ponganosi in piatti, & dapoi habbisi oglio bollente, e spargasi cosi caldo con la cocchiara sopra i broccoli, giungendovi sugo di melangole, pepe, & un poco di quel brodo nel qual son cotti, & servanosi caldi, percioche altrimente non vagliono.  Si può soffriggere con l’oglio uno spigolo d’aglio ammaccato per dare odore al broccolo, & quando si vorranno conservare per una o due hore, si porranno in acqua fredda, & si lascieranno stare poi che saranno perlessati fin’a tanto che si vorrano ricuocere.  In questo modo si conservanno i broccoli verdi, & non piglieranno tristo odore, & si servanno nel modo sopradetto.

De’ fonghi prataioli  [2]
Io mi son riserbato a ragionar qui de’ fonghi, nonostante che nella primavera e nell’estate in Italia ne nascano (come ancora in questa fertilissima isola, dove ancora sono da pochi conosciuti), e a studio ho ciò fatto per trovarsene maggior diversità in questa stagione che nelle altre si facci. Per la qual cosa io dico che quelli che nella primavera si trovano son piccioli, bianchi di fuori via e di dentro incarnatini, e sono assai duri, e per nascere ne’ prati prataiuoli s’appellano, e son molto buoni senza esser mai nocivi; né per mangiarli si fa loro altro che mondarli dalla tenera pellicina che gli cuopre; poi, posti in un pentolino con un poco d’acqua, ma olio assai overo butiro, con sale, aglio, pepe e una onesta quantità di buone erbette, si fanno a lento fuoco cuocere. E così chi ne mangia e non se ne lecca le dita non istimo che quel tale s’intenda bene della vera boccolica.

Per far suppa di Pere moscarole, & diverse altre pere, & di Mele appie, & Cotogni. [1]
Cap XXLIX, Terzo libro, folio 157.
Piglinosi le pere moscarole, & nettinosi del lor fiore, & faccianosi trarre un bollo nell’acqua, & dapoi si facciano cuocere con vino, & zuccaro pesto, & garofani, & cannella intieri.  Et le pere bergamotte, & riccarde faccianosi brustolire, & dapoi levisi loro la scorza con vin caldo, in modo che rimangano colorite, & faccianosi cuocere intere, o in fette, come le pere moscarole, & si puo ancho far trarre loro un bollo nell’acqua dapoi che saranno brustolite.  Le mele appie, le quali son molto piu tenere delle pere, brustoliscanosi, & cuocanosi nel modo sopradetto intere o tagliate in fette.  Le mele ruggine vogliono piu cuocitura delle appie, però nel cuocerle tengasi l’ordine, che si tiene nelle pere bergamotte, & come saranno cotti li sopradetti frutti, habbianosi fette di pane brustolite, & accommodate in piatti, & ponganosi sopra li frutti con la decottione.  Nel medesimo modo si possono ancho cuocere i cotogni.

Per fare pizza sfogliata dal vulgo detta sfogliata ascuitta. [1]
Cap CXXVIII, quinto libro,folio 367.
Piglisi un sfoglio di pasta tirato sottile, fatto come gl’antescritti, & habbisi una tortiera onta di butiro liquefatto, & sopra essa tortiera pongasi un sfoglio d’essa pasta, alquanto grossetto, & sopra esso sfoglio mettansi dieci altri sfogli sottile, onti tra l’uno, & l’altro di butiro, & spolverizzati di zuccaro, & fiore di sambuco secchi, o verdi, & faccisi cuocere al forno, o sotto il testo; & cotto che sarà, servasi calda con zuccaro, & acqua rosa sopra.  A un’altro modo si potrebbe fare, tirato il sfoglio come s’è detto, ongasi di butiro liquefatto, & lascisi alquanto raffreddare, & spargasi un’altra volta d’esso butiro, & spolverizzisi di zuccaro, & faccisi un tortiglione di sei rivolture, & come è fatto ongasi per il lungo, & rivolgasi à foggi di laberinto, & mettasi nelle totiera, dove sia un’altro sfoglio di pasta onta di butiro, & con la mano onta di butiro caldo (acciò la pasta no s’attacchi) venga a spianarsi, di modo che non rimanga piu alta d’un dito, & col nodo del pugno vadasocaldando in modo che gli resti il segno, spargasegli butiro liquefatto sopra, & facciasi cuocere al forno con lento fuoco, & servasi caldo con zuccaro, & acqua rosa sopra, se non si volesse spolverizzare di zuccaro, & acqua rosa sopra; mettasi il zuccaro nella pasta, & per bellezza si puo fare essa pizza col tortiglione sfogliato incirca.

A fare il latte mele [3]
Vinc.  Che modo tenete voi nel fare si dleicato il latte mele?
Scal.  Posta la panna con acqua rosa in una bacia, ò altro vaso conmodo si sbatte, & si rivolge con le bacchettine legate per quanto si tengono in mano, & le cime bene sparse, riducendola in schiuma, la quale si và levando col mescolo forato di mano in mano, secondo che si fà (ponendovi sopra del zucchero bene spolverizato) & si mette ne i piatti, seguitando pure a rivolgere, fin ch’è finita di ridurre in schiuma.

Per fare una torta biancha [6]
Piglia una libra e mezo di buon caso fresco e taglialo minuto e pestalo molto bene e piglia dodici ho quindidi albumi ho veo bianchi di ova e macinali molto bene con questo caso agiungendovi meza libra di zuharo meza oncia di zenzevero del piu biancho che tu possi havere similmente  meza libra di strutto di porco bello e biancho ho in luogo di strutto altrettanto butiro bono e fresco.  Item del lacte competentemente quanto basti che sara assai uno terzo di bochale poi farai la pasta ho vero crosta in la padella sottile come vole esse e metterala a quocere dandole el fuoco abellagio di sotto e di sopra e farai che sia di sopra un pocho colorita per il chaldo del fuoco.  Et quando ti pare cotta chacia fuori della padella e disopra vi metterai del zucharo fino e di buona acqua rosata.
.

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Recipes translated into English

Milan style Biscotti
Mixed Green Salad
Roast chickens
Pomegranate and lemon sauce
Asparagus salad
Lombard style herb tart
Roasted Pork Shoulder
Roman style Macaroni
Sour cherry sauce
Dish of carrots
Stewed beef
Dish of rice with oil and saffron
Dry dish of broccoli
Braised mushrooms
Pears cooked in wine
Layered pastry
A dish of snow
Ginger flavored cheesecake
Sherbet with orange and orange flower water

To make little morsels, that is “mostaccioli” in the Milan style [1]
Take fifteen fresh eggs and beat them in a casserole and pass through the sieve with two and a half pounds of sugar fine and powdered, and half an ounce of raw aniseed or partly crushed (aniseed) and a grain or two of fine musk, and put with this two pounds and a half of flour and beat everything for three quarters of an hour, so that it becomes like the pasta for fritters and let it rest for a quarter hour and re-beat it another time.  Then one takes a sheet of paper put into a “lucerne” and greased, or a ‘tortiere’ with wafers beneath that have not been bathed in such a way (not greased) and then put this paste into the ‘lucerne’ or ‘tortiere’ (specific pan types) until it is not higher than the thickness of a finger and immediately powder with sugar and put it into the oven that is hot, or the tart pan, and cook it like a tart and when this pasta is cooked (not wet) and will in all lose the humidity and it will be enough cooked, that is like a tender focaccia, pull out the ‘lucerne’ or ‘tortiere’ and immediately cut with a large thin knife, cut in slices as large as two fingers, and as long as one pleases, and put them in the oven with pieces of paper beneath the biscuits, turn them enough, ensure that the oven is not as hot as the one above (second baking is at a lower temp than first), and when they are well dried, pull them out and save them because they are always better the second day than the first and they will keep for a month in their perfection.

The right way to make a good salad [2]
Translation from “The fruit, herbs & vegetables of Italy: an offering to Lucy Countess of Bedford.  Giacomo Castelvetro, Gillian Riley.  1989 Viking, New York, NY.  Provided by Johnnae Ilyn Lewis
Of all the salads we eat in the spring, the mixed salad is the best and most wonderful of all.  Take young leaves of mint, those of garden cress, basil, lemon balm, the tips of salad burnet, tarragon, the flowers and most tender leaves of borage, the flowers of swine cress, the young shoots of fennel, leaves of rocket, of sorrel, rosemary flowers, some sweet violets, and the most tender leaves or the hearts of lettuce.  When these precious herbs have been picked clean and washed in several waters, and dried a little with a clean linen cloth, they are dressed as usual, with oil, salt and vinegar.
It takes more than good hers to make a good salad, for success depends on how they are prepared. So, before going any further, I think I should explain exactly how to do this.
It is important to know how to wash your herbs, and then how to season them.  Too many housewives and foreign cooks get their green stuff all ready to wash and put it in a bucket of water, or some other pot, and slosh it about a little, and then, instead of taking it out with their hands, as they ought to do, they tip the leaves and water out together, so that all the sand and grit is poured out with them.  Distinctly unpleasant to chew on…
So, you must first wash your hands, then put the leaves in a bowl of water, and stir them round and round, then lift them out carefully.  Do this at least three or four times, until you can see that all the sand and rubbish has fallen to the bottom of the pot.
Next you must dry the salad properly and season it correctly.  Some cooks put their badly washed, barely shaken salad into a dish with the leaves still so drenched with water that they will not take the oil, which they should to taste right.  So I insist that first you must shake your salad really well and then dry it thoroughly with a clean linen cloth so that the oil will adhere properly.  Then put it into a bowl in which you have previously put some salt and stir them together, and then add the oil with a generous hand, and stir the salad again with clean fingers or a knife and fork, which is more seemly, so that each leaf is properly coated with oil.
Never do as the Germans and other uncouth nations do – pile the badly washed leaves, neither shaken nor dried, up in a mound like a pyramid, then throw on a little salt, not much oil and far too much vinegar, without even stirring.  And all this done to produce a decorative effect, where we Italians would much rather feast the palate than the eye.
You English are even worse, after washing the salad heaven knows how, you put the vinegar in the dish first, and enough of that for a foot bath for Morgante, and serve it up, unstirred with neither oil nor salt, which you are supposed to add at table.  By this time some of the leaves are so saturated with vinegar that they cannot take the oil, while the rest are quite naked and fit only for chicken food.
So to make a good salad the proper way, you should put the oil in first of all, stir it into the salad, then add the vinegar and stir again.  And if you do not enjoy this, complain to me.
The secret of a good salad is plenty of salt, generous oil and little vinegar, hence the Sacred law of salads:
Insalata ben salata, Poco aceta & ben oliata. : Salt the salad quite a lot, Then generous oil put in the pot, And vinegar but just a jot.
And whosoever transgresses this benign commandment is condemned never to enjoy a decent salad in their life, a fate which I fear lies in store for most of the inhabitants of this kingdom.

To roast capons on the spit in several ways [1]
It is always better to roast a capon which is young than one which is old, but if one wants to roast an old capon it is necessary that it is sufficiently tenderized by aging.  It should be plucked and washed of all that is in the inside, whether (roasted) stuffed or empty, and start by scalding the bird in boiling water, and when it is scalded pull it out and lard the bird with small needles of lard.  But if you are going to stuff it (the capon) one can do it without (larding).  Put the capon on the spit and put it to cook with a moderate fire to begin with.   When it (the capon) begins to drip fat from itself put it towards a stronger fire, in order that in the cooking it remains tender.  If it is not larded, baste it with melted salted pork fat or strained fresh lard.  When it is cooked serve hot with sour orange or lemon juice on top.  One can also roast the said capons on the spit when they are young the same way one roasts pheasants in chapter 136.

To make sauce of sour orange juice and lemons [1]
Take four ounces of lemon juice and a pound of sour orange juice, strong or of half flavor, and put to boil the clear part (of the juice) in a casserole with a pound of fine sugar and a quarter of whole cinnamon and two cloves.  Leave to cook in the same way as that described in the previous recipe of the sauce of sour orange in the way that there is left from the three parts two.
* Note, when I originally translated this recipe I mistranslated melangranate which is sour oranges for pomegranate which are pomegranates.  However, the resultant sauce is so tasty and popular that I have maintained the substitution of pomegranate juice for lemon juice.

Of the Asparagus  [2]
We learn, also for a little in this same time, comes to fruit the asparagus, one wants to name it simply, it is better than hop sprouts.  These come by many to be eaten raw with salt and pepper, but cooked and dressed like hop sprouts are to me much more preferable.  Others peel the largest of them and first grease them well with oil, and then having sprinkled them with enough salt and pepper, over a table where they can be rolled in the peppered salt, and thus dressed put onto the grill and roasted.  And it is a delicate dish to eat, it is improved by squirting above a little sour orange juice.  And the asparagus is a healthy thing, it does not make ill any part of the human body and above all it is optimal for color without much negativity (?) because it gives appetite.

To make a Lombard style herb tart [1]
Cut beet (swiss chard) finely with a knife and wash in plenty of water, then leave to drain in a sieve, because it will give out all the juice, that is its goodness, then take a pound of parmesan cheese or that fat cheese of Riviera, grated and a pound of sheep milk ricotta, or that of cow, one ounce between pepper and cinnamon, a quarter of an ounce between cloves and nutmeg, four ounces of fresh butter, and six eggs, and thus make the mixture of everything.  Have a tart pan greased with butter with a sheet of pastry, made of flour, rose water, sugar and butter, egg yolks and warm water, and put the mixture into the tart pan, covering it with another sheet of pastry wrinkled (pleated?), put it to cook in the oven or under a “testo” and serve hot, and if one wants to put sugar in the mixture and above it is up to your decision.

To cook domestic pork shoulder in many ways [1]
If the pig is young the shoulder can be roasted on the spit, either with or without the skin, and with chopped onions underneath in the drip pan, which cook in the fat that falls from it (the roast) while it cooks.  And into the said shoulder one can put several sticks of rosemary, and before one puts it on the spit, one powders it with salt and ground fennel.  One can also make it after marinating the shoulder in a marinade of vinegar, cooked grape must, garlic cloves, and ground fennel for a day.  Then one puts it to cook on the spit in the above said manner, serve it hot with it's sauce above, made of the same marinade.  And if from this shoulder you want to make Venetian style cutlets, one should cut it rib from rib, and one pounds the said cutlets with the back of a knife, and powders them with salt, ground pepper and ground fennel, and when they have rested for an hour, laid one on top of another, one should cook them on the grill over a slow fire, turning them often.  And when they are cooked, one can serve them with sour orange juice or other sauce above.

To make a dish of Roman macaroni [1]
Mix together one pound of flour with four ounces of crumb of white bread that has been soaked in warm goats milk, and four egg yolks, two ounces of sieved sugar.  Blend this pasta together making sure that it is not too wet, knead well for half an hour on a table.  Roll the dough into sheets with a rolling pin, leave it thicker than the one (recipe) above.  Leave this sheet to dry, then with a disc cutter of iron or of wood cut the macaroni, making them thus, let them dry.  You want to cook them in simple water, make them cook in a large pan with plenty of water and enough salt.  When the water boils put in the macaroni, because if you put them in cold water they will sink to the bottom and become a single (lump) of pasta.  As one makes every kind of thin pasta, boil them for half an hour, making sure that they are tender, but do not leave them to boil until they are well cooked.  When they are cooked have ready a large silver, iron or ceramic plate that has been dusted heavily with grated cheese, sugar and cinnamon, and slices of fresh mozzarella.  And put on some of these macaroni, that have been well drained of water.  Above these macaroni sprinkle cheese, sugar and cinnamon, slices of mozzarella and little pieces of butter.  In this way one makes three layers, and then sprinkle with rosewater and cover it with another plate, and leave it in the hot cinders or in a medium hot oven for half an hour and serve hot.

To make sour cherry sauce [1]
Take fresh pitted sour cherries, and put them in a tinned copper or glazed ceramic pot, and let them boil without additional liquid very slowly without mixing.  When they are tender and have collapsed strain them through a sieve without pressing them, it is enough to collect only the juice that they make.  For every pound of the said juice add one pound of fine sugar and half a quarter (of an ounce) of whole cinnamon and a quarter (of an ounce) together of pepper, cloves and nutmeg ground.  And let everything boil together, skimming well with a wooden or silver spoon.  And let it boil until it makes mouths *  , make the proof like it is done for royal sauce in chapter 267.  And one conserves it in glazed ceramic vessels.
*  Many of the sauce recipes call for the sauce to be cooked, or hold body, presumably this is some sort of mouth feel.  The testing is question is as follows, a small amount of the sauce is placed on a cold plate and the speed at which it spreads across the plate is noted.  Essentially a heavy syrup stage is what is required.

Of the carrot and of the turnip [2]
We use, in addition to those already mentioned, the red and yellow carrot and also the turnip, of course cooked, and they always need pepper more than any other condiment.  We make of turnip an excellent dish, rather than cooking them in the manner of this country, make them cook, but first cut them into the smallest pieces, then cook them in good broth, and when they are cooked throw above them grated hard cheese and pepper.  And in many of the salads of winter I remember these, now I move to the fruits that we use in the cold seasons.

To stew in the oven or on the heat beef or cow loin [1]
Take the beef loin, or that of the cow when it is good, as is described above, with a piece of it's fat and a little of the muscle of the shoulder.  After the meat is cleaned of tendons and filaments sprinkle with wine and white vinegar and powder with pepper, cloves, crushed salt, cinnamon, ginger and fennel flowers and let this rest in a stew pot of clay for four hours with a little bit of greek wine, or malmsey wine, cooked grape must (saba) and rose scented vinegar.  Put this same mixture into the oven in this same pot, adding to it a little bit of chopped lard and slices of ham.  When it is more than half cooked, having turned it several times, one should add to it dried plums and cherries, if it is the winter, but in the summer one should use new (fresh).  When it is cooked one should serve it thus hot with the same mixture and broth above.  In this same way one can cook this also in a stew pot (over the fire).

To make a dish of rice with almond milk or with oil. [1]
Take rice from Lombard or Salerno, clean and wash with warm water, in order that it stays more white, and it cooks faster let is soak in warm water for an hour.  Pour it out and let it dry in to the sun or in the heat of a fire a long way from the flame in order that it does not become red (toast), and put it on the fire in a pot of ceramic or copper with enough water that it is covered.  And when it has absorbed all the water add to it almond milk with fine sugar many times (enough to cover?) and let it finish cooking in such a way that it remains firm.  And when it is cooked serve with sugar and cinnamon above.  One can also at the same time serve like a “ginestrata”, having passed it through a sieve with more sugar and ground cinnamon and saffron, and re-cook it with a little rose water and Madeira wine.  But if you want it with oil, don't do that but put in the pan with oil, water, salt and saffron and at the end add a little chopped herbs or chopped onion that have been fried.  And in all these ways this dish is prepared it should be served hot.

To cook broccoli dry. [1]
One can take broccoli from the month of February through the whole of March, taken clean from the leaves, and have the most tender part in which the flowers are not opened.  And put it to boil in water with salt, and as the broccoli will fit in the pan put it in boiling water, and one doesn't want to cook it too much, but take it out and drain it.  Put it into plates, and meanwhile have oil heating (boiling), and sprinkle this hot with a spoon over the broccoli, adding sour orange juice, pepper and a little of the liquid in which is was cooked.  And serve it hot because otherwise it has no value.  One can also fry with the oil a clove of garlic, which has been broken, to give its scent to the broccoli.  When you want to hold it for an hour or two, one can put it in cold water, and you let it stay there, after it has been parboiled, until you are ready to finish cooking it.  In this way one keeps the broccoli green and it will not take on foul odors, and one serves it in the way described above.

Of the meadow mushroom [2]
I reserve my reasoning about these mushrooms, not withstanding that in the spring and in the summer in Italy they are born (like also in this fertile island, where there are still little known).  In the studies I have made to find the major differences in the seasons and in the other way they grow.  For this I will say that those that one finds in the spring are small, white outside and on the inside rose colored and they are firm enough and they are born in the meadows after which they are named.  And they are very good without much of evil.  For eating, first peel them of the tender skin which covers them, then place them in a pan with a little bit of water, and enough oil or butter, with salt, garlic, pepper and an honest quantity of good herbs.  One makes them by cooking over a slow fire.  And thus one eats them and one can not help but lick ones fingers because of the wonderful taste.
* The meadow mushroom is a species of Agaricus, as is the standard white mushroom found in every grocery store.

To make soup of “moscarole” pears and many other pears, and “appie” apples and quince. [1]
Take “moscarole” pears, and clean them from their flowers, and give them a quick boil in water, and then one puts them to cook with wine and beaten sugar, cloves and whole cinnamon.  And bergamot pears and fuzzy pears one should toast/grill, and then peel the skins with hot wine, in the way that they keep the color, and cook them whole or in slices like “moscarole” pears, and one can also give them a quick boil in water after they have been toasted.  “Appie” apples, which are much more tender than pears, toast them and cook in the above said way, whole or in slices.  “Ruggine” apples need more cooking than “appie”, however in the cooking keep the same order that one has for bergamot pears.  And when all the above said fruit are cooked, have slices of toasted bread laid out in plates, and put above the fruit with the syrup.  In the same way one can also cook quince.

To make pizza of many layers, commonly cold dry layered pastry.  [1]
Take a sheet of pasta that has been pulled thin, made as is described in the previous recipe, have a tart pan greased with melted butter, and into this pan add a sheet of this pasta that is large enough.  Above this sheet put another 10 thin sheets, greasing between each one with butter and powdering with sugar and elder flowers, either fresh or dried.  And put it to cook in the oven or underneath a “testo”, and when it is cooked serve hot with sugar and rose water on top.  There is another way that one can make this, pull a sheet as is described and grease with melted butter, and let it chill a little, and sprinkle again with this butter, and powder with sugar and make a ring shaped pastry of six turns (roll pastry on itself).  And when it is made grease it along the length, and turn in the shape of a laberinth or knot, and put in the tart pan, where there is already another sheet of the pastry greased with butter, and with hands greased with melted butter (in order that the pasta does not stick to them) begin to turn it, in the way that it doesn't become any higher than a finger, and with the flat of your fist push it down so that it remains within, sprinkle with melted butter and put to cook in the oven with slow fire.  And serve hot with sugar and rose water above, and if one does not want to powder it with sugar and rosewater above, one can put sugar in the pastry, and for beauty one can make this pizza with little layered tarts that are in circles.

To make the honeyed milk. [3]
Vinc.  What method do you use to make delicate honeyed milk?
Scal.  Put the cream with rose water in a basin or other large vessel and beat it, & one turns it with a bundled wand as much as one can hold in your hand, and the shoots well spread, the which one lifts with the fork hand in hand, dependent on how one does it, put above well powdered sugar, and put it into the plates, continuing always to turn, until at the end it is all reduced to foam.

To make a white tart [6]
Take a pound and a half of good fresh cheese, chop it finely and grind it very well.  Take twelve or 15 albumen or rather the whites of the egg and mix them very well with this cheese.  Add half a pound of sugar, half an ounce of the whitest ginger that you might have and half a pound of beautiful white lard alternatively you can use good fresh butter.  Then add about one third of a "bocale" of milk or as much as is enough for the batter.  Make a thin pastry crust and use it to line the pan, and put this mixture on top, and cook it in the fire with a moderate fire both above and below.  And when it is done the top will be a little colored from the heat of the fire.  When you know it is cooked pull it from the pan and above add fine sugar and good rosewater.

Sherbet with orange and orange flower water [4]
The use of stored ice and snow to cool wine in 16th century Italy is not contested.  There are many references to storage pits for both ice and snow and the use of same to cool wine.  Included in this are the written opinions of the doctors that this was terribly bad for ones health.  The sherbet in question originated in Persia, where scented fruit syrups were poured over ice/snow to drink.  These sherbets, akin to today's snow cones, were popular during the last two decades of the 16th century.
A description of persian sherbets quoted from C. J. Wills, Persia As It Is, 1887,  is given as:
"The preserved sherbets are generally contained in small decanters of colored Bohemian glass similar to the istakhans in style.  They are in the form of clear and concentrated syrup.  This syrup is poured into the bowl or istakhan, as the case may be; water is added; the whole is stirred, and the requisite quantity of ice or snow completes the sherbet... The varieties of the preserved syrups are numerous: orange, lemon, quince, cranberry - the raspberry is unknown in persia - cherry, pomegranate, apricot, plum and grape juice; while various combinations of a very grateful nature are made by mixing two or even three of the above."

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Redacted Recipes

Milan style Biscotti
Mixed Green Salad
Roast chickens
Pomegranate and lemon sauce
Asparagus salad
Lombard style herb tart
Roasted Pork Shoulder
Onions cooked with the roast
Roman style Macaroni
Sour cherry sauce
Dish of carrots
Stewed beef
Dish of rice with oil and saffron
Dry dish of broccoli
Braised mushrooms
Pears cooked in wine
Layered pastry
A dish of snow
Ginger flavored cheesecake
Sherbet with orange and orange flower water

Milan style Biscotti
Ingredients
12 oz sugar
12 oz all purpose flour
2 teaspoon aniseed
5 whole large eggs + 1 egg yolk
Method
Preheat the oven to 360 F grease and flour an 8 x 12 glass baking pan or similar.  Note metal seems to burn more so use a slower conducting material like ceramic or glass.
Place all ingredients into the bowl of a stand mixer (I use a kitchenaid).  Blend with a K beater or equivalent on high speed for 15 minutes, until the mixture is pale and fluffy.  Rest the mixture for 15 minutes then beat again at high speed for 10 minutes.  Transfer the batter to the prepared baking dish and place on the center shelf of the pre-heated oven. Bake for 35 minutes or until the batter is risen and firm to the touch.  Remove the pan from the oven and immediately turn out onto a cutting board.  Reduce the oven temperature to 220 F.   Remove the edges and any burnt areas.  Note the bottom layer generally separates by itself.  Slice the cake into four slices along it's length and then slice each block into smaller pieces, about one finger width each.
Lay these on baking sheets lined with parchment paper and return to the oven.  Turn the biscotti every half hour and allow to dry completely, this may take 2 to 3 hours.  When dry, remove the biscotti from the oven and allow to cool completely before storing in an air tight container.  They will keep for a considerable time without spoiling.

Mixed Green Salad
Ingredients
Baby greens salad mix
Kosher salt
Red wine Vinegar
Extra Virgin Olive Oil
Roast chickens
Method
Toss the washed and dried greens with a pinch of salt, add olive oil and mix thoroughly, finally sprinkle with a little red wine vinegar, toss the salad, serve immediately.

Roast chickens
Ingredients
1 whole chicken
salt
strong spice blend consisting of 4 parts black pepper, 2 parts nutmeg, 2 parts long pepper and 1 part cloves
Method
Pre-heat the oven to 370 F.  Wash the chicken and season inside and out with the salt and spice blend.  Place the chicken in a roasting pan and place into the pre-heated oven for 20 minutes per pound + 20 minutes or until the internal temperature at the thickest part of the meat registers 180 F.  Remove from the oven and chill thoroughly and quickly.  Keep cold until service. To serve chop the chicken into 8 pieces.

Pomegranate and lemon sauce
Ingredients
1 bottle Pomegranate molasses (250 ml)
250 ml lemon juice Lemon juice
2 cups sugar
1 stick cinnamon
Method
Combine all ingredients in a sauce pan, heat on low until the sugar has dissolved, then increase the heat until the consistency of the sauce resembles a syrup, remove any scum that rises to the surface.  Serve cold.

Asparagus salad
Ingredients
1 bunch asparagus
Juice of an orange
Juice of a lemon
Olive oil
Salt
Method
Remove the tough bottoms from the asparagus stems.  Bring a pot of salted water to the boil, add the asparagus, bring back to a boil then immediately remove the asparagus and transfer to an ice water bath to cool.  When cool, allow to drain.  Immediately prior to serving dress the asparagus with salt and a vinaigrette made of 1 part lemon juice, 2 parts orange juice and 9 parts olive oil (this is to simulate sour orange juice).  Serve immediately otherwise the acid turns the bright green asparagus a nasty muddy green.

Lombard style herb tart
Ingredients
For pastry: 8 oz All-purpose flour, 4 oz butter, 1/2 teaspoon salt,  ice water to mix
For filling:
12 oz ricotta cheese
4 oz frozen chopped spinach, thawed and drained
2 eggs
salt
spice blend consisting of nutmeg, cinnamon, cloves and pepper
Method
Pre-heat the oven to 400 F.  Make the pastry by rubbing the butter into the flour, add salt and blend to a dough with the ice water.  Allow the dough to rest in the fridge for at least half an hour before pro-ceeding.  Roll out the dough and use it to line a pie plate, bake blind in the oven for 15-20 minutes, or until the crust has set but is not colored.  Reduce the heat to 360.
Meanwhile make the filling. Squeeze the spinach to remove all the water, blend the spinach with the ricotta and eggs, add salt, and spices to taste.  I prefer the following predominance of flavors, pepper, nutmeg, cinnamon and cloves.  Pour the filling into the prepared crust and bake for about 45 minutes or until the filling has set.  Remove from the oven and chill before serving.

Roasted Pork Shoulder
Ingredients
Pork shoulder, boned and rolled or Pork loin
Rosemary
Salt and pepper
Method
Pre-heat the oven to 360 F.  Prepare the pork by inserting rosemary sprigs into cuts made into the flesh.  Rub the roast with salt and pepper.  Place in a roasting pan.  Roast for 25 minutes a pound + 25 minutes or until the internal temperature reaches 170 F.  Allow to rest for at least 10 minutes before carving, serve hot.

Onions cooked with the roast
Ingredients
1 lb onions
Pork roasting in the oven (see above)
olive oil (optional)
Rosemary
Method
Peel and chop the onions into quarters, toss the onion pieces with a little olive oil, rosemary and salt. About one hour before the roast is due to finish cooking spread the onions around the roast.  Stir at least once or twice before the roast is removed from the oven.  If the onions are not browned/cooked to your liking leave them in the pan in the oven for a longer period of time.

Roman style Macaroni
The kitchen site in use requires that all food other than desserts are prepared on site.  Given the quantity of other dishes required to be cooked on the day I have decided that the burden of making fresh pasta on the day is not warranted.  Thus I must use store bought pasta.
Ingredients
1 lb straight pasta noodle
6 oz mozzarella cheese grated
2 oz grated parmesan cheese
ground cinnamon
sugar
salt
Method
Bring a large volume of salted water to the boil, add the pasta and cook as per package instructions.  Meanwhile oil an oven proof dish.  Drain the cooked pasta and add 1/3 rd of it to the dish, sprinkle with cinnamon and sugar to taste and 1/3 of the cheese mixtures.  Repeat this layering process twice more, finishing with a layer of cheese.  Either heat the dish in an oven at 350 F for 10 minutes prior to serving or hold in a warming cabinet or on a chaffer prior to serving.  This ensures that the cheese is soft and melted upon service.

Sour cherry sauce
Ingredients
1 lb frozen sour cherries
1 lb sugar
1 stick cinnamon
1/4 oz together pepper, cloves and nutmeg ground (about 1 tsp.)
Method
I will use whole cherries in the sauce to give it more body than a simple cherry syrup which is what the result of the original is.  Put the cherries in a pan and bring to a simmer with the spices, stir in the sugar and heat gently until dissolved.  Increase the heat and boil until the temperature reaches 230 F, a temperature just short of the jelly stage.

Dish of carrots
Ingredients
Carrots
Salt
Olive oil
Black pepper
Method
Peel and slice the carrots, put to boil in salted water until tender.  When cooked dress with olive oil and season liberally with ground black pepper.

Stewed beef
Ingredients
1 lb trimmed stewing beef cubed
1/2 tablespoon white or red wine vinegar,
1/4 cup red wine
pinch each pepper, ground cloves, ground ginger
2 pinches ground fennel seed
salt to taste
1 tablespoon grape must (substituted with grape molasses)
1 teaspoon rosewater
2 plums, pitted and chopped
Method
Dust the meat with the salt, spices, toss with the vinegar, rosewater and grape must and allow to marinate for at least two hours preferably four.  Place the meat and marinade into a heavy bottomed pan and cook over low heat for 1 1/2 to 2 hr. or until the meat is nearly tender.  Add the chopped plums and adjust the seasoning to taste.  Allow to cook for a further 20 minutes.  Serve hot.  Alternatively cook in a slow oven, 350 F.
Note: because of the dry nature of the site the wine was not added to today's dish.

Dish of rice with oil and saffron
Ingredients
1 cup long grain rice
small pinch saffron threads, steeped with 1/2 cup hot water for 30 minutes
1 teaspoon salt
1 cup water
Method
Wash the rice in several changes of cold water to remove excess starch.  Drain thoroughly and place in a heavy bottomed pan.  Add the saffron water, additional 1 cup cold water and salt.  Heat on moderate to high heat until the water begins to boil.  Put a lid on the pan and reduce the heat to low.  Continue to simmer on low for 15 minutes without removing the lid.  Turn the heat off and allow the rice to sit for a further 10 minutes.  Fluff the rice with a fork before serving.

Dry dish of broccoli
Ingredients
1 lb broccoli, trimmed and cut into florets
salt
2 tablespoons olive oil
1 large or 2 small garlic cloves, sliced
Method
For service immediately: steam or boil the broccoli until tender.  While the broccoli is cooking in a frying pan heat the oil gently with sliced garlic until the garlic just begins to boil.  Drain the broccoli and immediately before serving pour the flavored oil over it.
For service with holding: blanch the broccoli by putting spears into boiling water until it returns to the boil, remove the broccoli and refresh in cold water.  Hold the broccoli in the fridge.  Just before service plunge the precooked broccoli into boiling water, drain and dress with oil as above.  This way the green nature of the broccoli is retained without spoilage.

Braised mushrooms
Ingredients
1 lb mushrooms, washed and sliced
1 clove garlic crushed
1 tablespoon olive oil
1 tablespoon fresh chopped parsley
1/2  teaspoon dried herbs, marjoram, oregano, thyme
salt to taste
Method
Heat the oil over medium heat, add the garlic, mushrooms and dried herbs.  Sauté gently in their own juice until the mushrooms are tender.  Sprinkle with chopped parsley just before service.
Note: the garlic was omitted from this dish for feast because of a desire not to serve two dishes with garlic in one course.

Pears cooked in wine
Ingredients
1 lb pears
1/2 bottle white or red wine
1 cup sugar
1 stick cinnamon
4 cloves
Method
Mix the wine and sugar together in a pan.  Peel and slice the pears and add them to the wine syrup together with the spices.  Bring to a boil, then reduce the heat to a simmer and cook until the pears are tender (30 minutes to an hour).  Remove from the heat and chill, serve cold.
Note: because of the dry nature of the site grape juice and cherry juice have been used as substitutes for wine in the cooking of this dish.  Shame really, because the wine makes this dish very tasty.

Layered pastry
Ingredients
1/2 pack filo dough thawed
1/4 lb butter
1 cup sugar
2 tablespoons cinnamon
Method
Melt the butter and keep warm so that it will spread.  Working quickly remove a sheet of filo dough from the packet, keep the remainder covered with a damp towel.  Lay the filo dough on a board, brush with butter, cover with another sheet of dough and repeat the butter, cover with another sheet of dough butter and then sprinkle with cinnamon and sugar.  Repeat this layering, 3 sheets filo then cinnamon and sugar, until 12 sheets of filo have been used.  Finish with a layer of cinnamon and sugar.  Slice the sheet into triangles.   Bake in a pre-heated 400 F oven (or at the temperature recommended on the filo packet) until golden brown.  Allow to cool, serve cold.
Note: After taste testing this dish made with both dried elder flowers and with cinnamon the consensus was that cinnamon tasted better.  It also prevents the dessert menu from becoming overpowered with flower scented dishes.

A dish of snow
Ingredients
1 cup heavy whipping cream
2 tablespoons sugar
1 teaspoon rosewater
Method
Combine all ingredients in the chilled bowl of a stand mixer fitted with the whisk attachment.  Whip at high speed until stiff peaks are obtained.  Keep cold until service.

Ginger flavored cheesecake
Ingredients
12 oz cream cheese
1/4 cup milk
4 whole eggs
1 teaspoon ground ginger (or more to taste)
1/2 cup sugar (or more to taste)
1 tablespoon all-purpose flour
Powdered sugar to dust
Method
Pre-heat the oven to 370 F. Grease and flour a 6" pie pan.  In a stand mixer blend the cream cheese, sugar, milk, flour and ginger, add the eggs one at a time and beat until incorporated.  Pour the prepared batter into the pie pan and bake for 30-45 minutes until the center is firm and the cheesecake is slightly golden.  Remove from the oven and allow to chill.  Serve cold dusted with powdered sugar.
Note: Rosewater was omitted from this recipe due to the presence of other flower scented dishes in this course.  You may choose to sprinkle with rosewater prior to dusting with sugar for home consumption.

Sherbet with orange and orange flower water
Ingredients
1 pint orange juice
2 cups sugar
1 tablespoon orange flower water
ice
Methods
In a pan combine the sugar and orange juice and bring to a simmer and stir until the sugar is dissolved.  Cool the syrup then add the orange flower water.  To serve: in a bar blender pour the syrup over ice and blend until a slushy consistency is obtained.  Serve cold with an orange slice.  This may be made in advance and held in the freezer for up to an hour.

Acknowledgments

Thanks first must be given to the Barony of Red Spears for encouraging me to put my talents to use for the good of all and for finding a site with a real kitchen to cook in.
Many thanks to the "Silver Spoons" the cooks guild of the Barony of Red Spears for the loan of feast serving ware.
Kudos to my household "The Lost Keys" who I know will be a source of much manpower on the day, their volunteerism is a result of two circumstances.  1) their willingness to help out with events in this area and 2) the knowledge that if they don't help me then the quality of food served to them at Pennsic will deteriorate.
My respectful admiration for Master Hroar Stormgengr, for being satisfied with an apprentice who prefers cooking over pottery, and his encouragement throughout.
Thanks to THL Johnnae Ilyn Lewis for encouraging me to use my knowledge of Italian to translate period Italian manuscripts, for tempting me with her copy of Scappi at Baron Wars in May 2001 and  for providing many additional sources of information.  Also my appreciation to her for taking on the task of preparing appropriate "trionfi" for an Italian feast, these subtleties were all researched and prepared by her.
Last, but never least, gratitude to my boyfriend and soon to be fiancé Lord Thorkell Magnusson don Oslo who is a constant source of strong back muscles, massages, comfort and a car with a large trunk.

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