Thomas Glonings transcription in italian can be found by clicking here
Translated 2002 CE by Helewyse de Birkestad
You may use/ distribute this version for non-profit use only (scholarly,
private use) provided that this header is included. Contact me by email
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Items in brackets are most appropriate translation of literal translation to left.
Items with question marks are guesses based on the most likely translation where I have been unable to find a modern equivalent.
* notes at the end of each recipe are personal observations or in many cases comments on word substitutions/translations.
If you find any mistakes or can give a translation for any of the untranslatable words, please contact me and I will make the appropriate correction and post a thank you on the page.
This translation is not a polished one. This means that the language is translated literally, with all it's warts and strange language. I contemplated cleaning it up, but on consideration what I consider unnecessary to a recipe may be key to its understanding by another. This page will continue to be polished over the next few months as I find more words and have access to a facsimile of the original document. Have fun, and if anyone makes any of the complex recipes (you will see which ones I mean) then take pictures and let me know what it tasted like.
An Italian Dictionary, By Alfred Hoare, M.A. Second Edition. Cambridge
University Press 1925.
This was a much more useful dictionary than many modern ones as it gave archaic, obsolete and dialect forms of verbs and spellings and referred to the modern italian spelling, often giving etymological basis for the words.
A dictionary Italian & English, Formerly compiled by John Floria and
since his last edition, anno 1611, augmented by himselfe in his life time
with many thousand words and thuscan phrases. Now most diligently revised,
corrected and compared with la Crusca and other approved dictionaries extant
since his death and enriched with many considerable editions. Printed
by T. Warren for Fa. Martin, Fa. Allestry and the Dicas, and are to be sold
at the signe of the Bell in S. Pauls Church-Yard. MDCLIX.
Many thanks to Johnna Holloway for pointing me to this dictionary it cleared up many obscure phrases, being compiled before the Italian language was standardized.
II. Ambroyno (a sweet food)
If you want to make ambroyno, take a hen and chop in pieces, take onions well minced and fry them in strained lard, and put in sweet and strong spices, and ginger, and cloves, and grains of paradise, and cut them small with a knife and put them to fry everything together. And take un-peeled almonds and grind them and take verjuice and saffron together. When it is cooked put it over the hen. For three hens you want a pound of almonds.
Agliata for every meat, take the garlic and cook it under the coals then grind to a paste well and mix it with raw garlic and crumb of bread, sweet spices and broth, and mix each thing together and let it boil a little and serve it warm.
* too much raw garlic can make this sauce very aggressive.
(ambrosia) good and perfect and such.
If you want to make ambrosino for 12 persons take 6 lean capons and 2 pounds of almonds and a pound of currants, and 1 (pound of) dates and a pound of prunes/damson plums (brognole) and 1 ½ of ginger fine and one ½ whole nutmeg and cloves and whole saffron, and half pound of sweet spices, and take the capon and cut into portions and make seven pieces of each, and put it to fry in lard rendered and strained in a pan. And when it is well fried, the first thing that you must put in is the zenzevro rubbed and the nutmeg chopped well small, and cinnamon broken in good pieces and cloves whole, and almonds whole peeled, and dates whole well washed, and put in sweet spices in large amounts and let cook a little; and when it is cooked take it back (remove off the flame), when it is cooked first put in the almonds with the shell not peeled (unskinned) and grind and distemper (mix) with little vinegar and when it is cooked the dish, strain the almonds and put sauce with spices and enough saffron. This dish wants to be sharp and sweet and scarlet and sparing take it back (off the fire?) and put it in a bowl and powdered spices over the bowl.
* Brognole is translated in Florio as any prune or damson plum, given the context it is most likely to indicate prunes.
V. Bramangere (Blancmange)
If you want to make bramangere for 12 persons take 4 pounds of almonds and one pound of rice and 4 hens, two pounds of fresh grease, and a pound and a half of sugar, half a quarter of cloves. And take the almonds and peel them and reserve a quantity whole, and the others grind, and distemper with a little clear water, and strain them well through a colander, and take the rice well peeled (hulled) and well washed with hot water and well picked over, then suck (dry) with a cloth, and pound it smooth, very fine, and sift, and take the pieces of the hen and let them boil a little, and shred very thin. And fry in the grease on a little fire (softly) in a pot (probably covered pot), and put to the fire the almond milk and reserve (some) in a bowl. When the milk boils distemper the flour of the rice with some of the raw (cold) milk and put it to boil and thicken over the coals, and put immediately the flesh in threads and the grease melted into this dish, and mix often, and put to it the sugar. When it is cooked and ready to serve put rose water over the bowl and then sugar and then the almonds blanched and fried, and then cloves. This dish must be very white, like snow and sparing (streta) and potent of spices.
* streta is translated as strict, precise or sparing. Given context may indicate a simple dish.
VI. Broth of chickens (pullets)
If you want to make broth of chickens, take chickens and let them simmer, take almonds skinned and pounded and distemper with the broth of the chicken, and rose water and verjuice, and temper everything together. And then take cinnamon, ginger and cloves half ground, and half cut small, and put into this broth and let everything boil together. And then when it goes to the table, put the chickens into the broth, and see that it is good and hot. When you serve, put the sugar above the bowl and it will be a good dish.
VII. Good taste/relish
of chickens (pullets)
To give good flavor to chickens, take grated apples and make wine by hand (juice), and put into that wine good sweet spices, and if it seems to you too strong, mix aniseed ground, or rose water. Or use wine (juice) of grated apples sharp and wine of good sweet grapes, and put these two wines together and enough sweet spices. If you don't have enough grapes put in a little honey and let it boil: the spices will be raw: you do not want it to be made that spoils, spills, wastes (guasta).
* savore is a taste or relish, given context could also be called a sauce.
Guasta translates as spills, wastes or spoils. Given context may indicate that the sauce will be spoiled if you cook too much.
VIII. Broth with eggs
in (sauce) for good partridge
Broth of partridge, take milk of almonds and egg yolks and saffron and verjuice and sweet spices and allow to boil enough until it is cooked and it will be good.
IX. Carmeline sauce for capons
If you want to make carmeline sauce for 12 people with capon, take 6 fat capons and take three pounds of almonds, and take two ounces of fine spices, long pepper, and nutmeg well ground together, and take the capon and boil, and when they are enough done, and let them chill, and take the almonds with the husk (skin) and wash them well and grind. Temper with the broth of the fat capons and set it to boil, and a little sharp wine and verjuice, and take spices ground enough when it is well boiled this thing take behind (at one side) for serving and don't put the capons into the sauce in the bowl, and put over it the finest spices that you have.
X. Butter of fresh cheese
If you want to make butter of fresh cheese to make other things, take 6 fresh cheeses and mash them the most that you can, and when they are well mashed temper with clear cold water. The fat comes to the top, take and prick with with a knife, and then put it with what dish you want, and in tarts if you want it is good.
XI Butter of fat of almonds
If you want to make butter of almond fat to make dishes for Friday or for lent take three pounds of almonds to make a tart or whatever dish that you want for 12 persons. And of this butter you can put to flavor tartare (a sort of pie made of soaked bread, almonds and sugar) or other pies. In that one does not eat meat, take the almonds peeled and washed and well ground and stamped with clear water, and when it has been well strained and pressed put this milk of almonds to boil. And when it has well boiled throw it (put) over a white cloth. When the water has strained below take good knife and scrape from the cloth and put it above the "taiero" and put it in whatever dish you want.
* taiero. Tagliere is to cut, tovalia is a towel. Context indicates a storage location or dish of some type.
XII. Broth of eggs pure,
good and perfect
If you want to make broth pure take eggs and beat them and put them with verjuice and cold water and salt that is enough. Take of that broth that you cook of meat or fish whatever, and put it in a pan enough that you defend that enough (big enough to stir easily), and put it over the coals from far enough (gentle heat off the coals), and put on these eggs and mix well that it does not open (curdle), and then dish and dust over good spices.
XIII. Little broth for fish
Take the fish and boil it, then take parsley and walnuts and the crumb of bread and grind it all together, and take sweet and strong spices and let it boil altogether and put it over the fish and it is good, perfect etc.
XIV Ciuiro or sauce
black to ash gray for boar
If you want to make sauce black take the meat that is well roasted/cooked and well beaten to a paste in a mortar, and take the middle of bread well scorched (toasted) until it is well black and then soaked in vinegar and well broken so that it is well sieved and mix it with the meat broken, and put in long pepper and grains of paradise and ginger and well grind these three things to a smooth (powder) and put it above the sauce with vinegar and with lean broth of the meat, and put to boil this sauce that is in a vase (a similar term vasellame, means crockery or plate, this seems to be a specific cooking vessel). This sauce should be black and strong with spices and sharp with vinegar.
* Ciuiro no translation could be found context indicates another word for sauce. Dish almost becomes a stew more than a sauce, the boar is cooked and then mashed and mixed with a sauce.
XV Sauce or relish
for hind (deer, venison) etc.
If you want to make meat of hind (venison) boiled, you can make the sauce of the meat the same as that previous and it is good.
XVI Sauce for meat of
roebuck or of hare
Boil or roast for the best that you want, etc. Make similar to that said above for the boar, and if you put this dish hot you want to put it on the sauce and if it is cold mix them.
XVII Capons or hens stuffed
If you want to make two capons for 12 persons. Take two fresh cheeses and 12 eggs and take two ounces of sweet spices, take half a pound of fresh lard and take the capons well washed and skinned and let them boil. When they are well cooked, strip all and pull out the bones and preserve. And beat the meat with some leaves of parsley, and mint and marjoram, and of the said spices, and the cheese that has been well mixed to a paste, and of the eggs that you have so much that is enough and of these things make a good batter, fine and soft and well yellow, and good presence of spices, and take chopped these bones and redress each one for it is according that it nails in part of this batter. And put each in rashers of pork and fry in lard. And when they are fried, powder with the said spices and take strained egg yolks and whites and spices and saffron, temper with juice of grapes crushed or with verjuice or with the capon broth, and of this stuff make a good sauce, and put it to boil. When you want to put these bones stuffed in this boiling broth, when it is done take it for the bowl and the capons for platters. This dish wants to be well yellow and sour of verjuice. If you want to make it for more persons or for less take the things of this measure by same proportion.
* the first of several complex recipes. The capons are cooked, mashed, made into a paste with herbs and spices, reformed around the bones (which must be the leg bones), wrapped in rashers and fried in lard. These fake chicken legs are then served in broth.
XVIII. Dish/sauce of
hare or of other meat.
If you want a good roast, take the hare or other meat that has been well washed and make pieces and put them to cook, and take bread and toast till it is black, and put it to soak in vinegar, then take onions and grate well like cheese, then take the meat and the onions and fry well in clean lard, take its liver and mix well the bread and the stuff and temper with verjuice and with honey, or with a "cocto", and put the spices and make boil everything together. When it is well boiled put it to chill and it will be good and perfect.
* cocto – no translation. Context indicates some sort of sour/sweet liquid
XIX. Coradella of lamb etc.
If you want to make heart/liver of lamb, take the heart/liver and set it to boil whole, and then make the thin (subtle) slices, and make that one is not part of the other (each is separate), and then take good herbs and egg yolks and beat them together, and fry it in good cleaned lard (dip the heart slices in batter and fry). And when it is fried put the sweet spices and strong and powder the heart (?chola) within, then put those herbs within in one slice and the other and then turn each into the net (caul over the liver) or (raisella?) and put it into a "rocha of cana fessa" (? some sort of dish no words found) and do it thus, and it is good to eat.
* Coradella could mean: heart dish from cora, or Liver and lights/lungs dish from coratella. Context seams to indicate heart more than liver that is mentioned in other recipes as fegato/fecato.
This recipe gets confusing the impression I have is that you cook the liver, dip in batter, fry, re-assemble it in a caul and then re-cook and serve.
XX Heart of kid, etc
And if you want to make heart of kid whole, take the heart and put it to boil, then beat with the mallet , and then take good herbs and egg yolks beaten and fry in the lard and put it in the heart, and press everything together, and put half a fresh cheese and put fine spices and put three eggs and draw everything together. Then turn it into its net well, then put the things in the frying pan, and it will be good.
* Again cook, this time stuff with egg mix, coat with cheese, put in a caul or casing and fry.
XXI. Compost (pickle) good
If you want to make good compost, take sumac or currants and aniseed and fennel and coriander and tear in a little ginger and vinegar and mix every thing together and add enough saffron, then take turnip or pears and herbs and stamp gently, and put it to boil a little, then pour that relish over (the dish).
XXII Cabbage sprouts of life/diet
If you want to make cabbage sprouts, take the cabbage sprouts rounded and do them to cook a while; when the are a little boiled take them from (the fire) and pour well away the water, and then fry them much and fat, and then take verjuice, parsley and water, and spices and salt, temper these all together and put above (the sprouts) and let them well boil. Then take a little of marjoram and temper with water, and put it above and it will be good.
(fried dish?) of fish that you want.
Take the fish and fry it, take "zevolle" (no translation, sevo suet?) and boil it a bit and cut it small, then fry well, then add vinegar and water and whole peeled almonds and strained eggs, and strong spices and a little honey and boil every thing together and put over the fish.
dish (Frumenty) good and perfectly useful.
If you want to make a frumenty, take the wheat and beat it well to when it leaves the shell/husk, then wash it well, then put it to boil not much, then throw away the water, then put into it that fat of the meat that you choose, and it needs to be not too much, and mix spices sweet and strong and saffron, and if you do not have wheat take rice; it will be good.
If you want to make mushrooms, take dried mushrooms and set them to moisten in hot water and wash them well, then boil them and then make them good how you want and know; then take onions and herbs and season with sweet and strong spices; and then put the mushrooms into and fry every thing together, and take unpeeled almonds and grind them and then put them over the mushrooms; or else add verjuice and they should be hot.
XXVI. Magnificent fritters
of the Emperor
If you want to make fritters of the emperor, take the white of the egg and slices of fresh cheese, and beat with the white of the egg, and put a little flour and peeled pine nuts. Take the frying pan with enough grease, make it boil and make the fritter. When they are cooked, powder well with sugar and hold (serve) them hot, etc..
XXVII. Fritters of
Take flowers of elder, and mix them to soak in milk, and let them well soak, then take from (the milk) and pound them well and mix a little flour and temper with eggs and with some of the milk in which you had the flowers. Then you have the frying pan with enough grease and fry them. When they are cooked, cover the trivet (serving dish) and good.
XXVIII. White fritters.
To make white fritters, take almond milk and leaven, add flour and temper together and leave it to raise then make the fritters. When they are cooked powder with sugar and they are good.
XXIX. Apple fritters for lent.
Take the apples and peel them, then cut in the way of the host (thin slices) and make a batter of flour with saffron and add strained eggs, and put these apples in this batter; then fry with oil enough for it, powder sugar when they are cooked, etc.
of hen or of fish. Called peppered and good.
If you want to make hen or fish in jelly, take the hen and let it boil enough and fry, and take dry pieces of bread and soak in vinegar, and take currants and peeled almonds and mash/beat all together and temper with mature wine and with vinegar and add all the best spices that you want and have powdered and boil together with the fat in which you fried the hen, and then when it has boiled, put it over the hen that has been well fried.
XXXI. Jelly of whatever meat.
If you want to make a good jelly of any meat: of meat of pork of the woods (boar), take ears and feet and each thing, and capons and partridge, and thrush, and hare, and roebuck (venison), and pheasant, take these things and put these to the fire in part water and part vinegar and when they are boiled and well skimmed, put spices and pepper and cinnamon and ginger and saffron not beaten together, that you choose is enough with the meat. And when the meat it is enough cooked pull it out, until remains the ears and the feet until it is of enough substance. When it is pulled all these things from, pulverize all the meat and spices, and take the jelly from the fire and let it stand, and take saffron and temper with jelly and place the meat into a vessel that you want that is lined with bay leaves and put over this jelly and strain the jelly and saffron with wool (through a cloth). When it is strained over the meat, take sweet spices and mix with this same jelly and pour it above, it should be colored and good yellow, and put with to boil from that which is come together, and it will be a good jelly.
XXXII. Jelly in another way.
If you want to make jelly, take fish and cinnamon, and one ounce of ginger and one ounce of long pepper, and half a quarter of cardamom and a quarter of cloves, and half a quarter of grape juice, and half a quarter of nutmeg, and beat these things to a paste together, and with saffron, then take bread and cut off the crust, take hazelnuts large and toast in live coals, and these things should be mixed together and tempered with fine white vinegar and put to boil together. This is good with trout or lamprey and with every sea fish and if if is of meat, it is good with capon and hens etc.
* gardanino was taken to be cardamom, Flori gave cardamomo, cardamamo, cardamono as seeds or grains of paradise.
XXXIII. Jelly ready
to serve and good of fish
To make jelly of fish for 12 persons, take three large tench, take two ounces of sweet and strong spices together and half a quarter of saffron for this, and take the fish well washed and put in the sun a little, take and cook in part water, part fine vinegar, and set them to boil. And when the are well boiled, the first thing that you add, is the said spices and saffron and everything, and set to boil softly and very closed. When it is cooked pull it off and set it to cool, have bay leaves well washed and powdered with the said spices, and then take the fish and place in the vessel and let rest the jelly. Either boil the saffron or not. When it is chilled and a little set, put it over the fish and put enough spices and it is done, etc.
XXXIV. Battered herbs
perfect and good, etc.
If you want to make battered herbs, take peeled almonds and beat and strain, and take two ounces of rice that has been floured (rice flour), and then take the pieces of capon and cut to thin slices, and then put the almond milk to boil tempered with rice flour, and put these capon slices therein, and let it well cook, and then that you serve, put sugar above the bowl powdered with other spices enough. And if you don't have rice put almonds enough that it is well thick etc.
XXXV. Herbetella, (herb omelet)
If you want to make herbatella cooked in a frying pan, take mint and sage, and parsley and marjoram and every good herb that you may have, pound everything together in a mortar, and bacon fat and temper with eggs, and thus in a frying pan with fat.
(herb omelet) in lent.
If you want to make a herb omelet in lent with oil, take the herbs, be it spinach and blide (?), parsley and mint and marjoram a little well peeled and washed and set them to boil. When they are enough cooked pour away the water and dry well by hand (squeeze dry), then beat (chop) with a knife, then beat with mallet, then put in the pot and fry with oil and with salt that is enough, then make sure that it is enough and then pull off (the heat) and let it rest. When it goes to the table, dish and powder above with spices.
* no translation could be found for blide. Given the context some form of green herb or pot herb is likely.
XXVII. Lean dish or scabwort
Enolata, take enola (scabwort/horsetail) and peel and cut, and then paste with pork belly raw, and put in fresh cheese and temper with eggs and make a crust, and put it in a frying pan, and put clean grease and make it cook.
* In the Hoare enola is translated as elecampane in Floria as scabwort/horsetail.
If you want to make lasagne in lent, take the lasagne and put it to cook, and take walnuts peeled and well beaten and ground, and put into the lasagne, and guard from smoke, and when it goes to the table, serve and powder with the spices and sugar.
XXXIX. Meat of the apples good and perfect.
Take the apples, and peel and cut in quarters and let them boil; when they are enough cooked pour away the water, then put in the fat of the meat that you choose, and do in this way gourds also, and put good sweet spices and beaten eggs how it seems to you.
XL. Migliaciti (cake?) white and abundant, etc.
If you want to make white cake in the best way that you can for 12 people, take enough leaven that would be a loaf and a half, take water well hot a little and mix with the yeast that it makes ribbons, and take four fresh cheese that are good and fat, and take 10 eggs, and take two pounds of fresh grease well cleaned and strained. And when the leaven is well worked (risen), put above flour in quantity in a bowl and put also a little water and mix the three things together, and mix the eggs that you have, and make that this batter is soft, and put in a hot dish but not too much and well greased, and chop over the two cheeses that you have well cut and the other of lard that you have very hot and make it thus. And if you want to make for more persons or for less take the things in this way.
XLI. Almond dish cooked and perfect.
If you want cooked almond dish for 12 persons, take three pounds of almonds and take half a pound of sugar, take the almonds well peeled and well washed and well crushed and temper with a little clear strained water and put to boil in a vessel that is big enough to stir well and put to the dish sugar. And if you want to make for more persons or for less take the things of this dish in the similar measure.
XLII. Mustard and mustard good
If you want to make mustard, take the fat that falls hot from a roast capon or other meat, take mustard seed and crush well, and when it is well ground put it to soak in water well boiled, and then take of cooked wine and mix everything together and put it to boil a little etc.
For another way of making mustard delicate, take the seeds cut and washed well with boiling water and temper with a knife and mix sugar and powdered cloves, etc.
XLIII. Meat of turnips.
Take the turnips with small leaves, and put to boil, when they appear ready cooked, pour away the water and put in enough grated cheese and boil them well together; when they are cooked and you serve put above enough of the cheese over the dish.
XLIV. Malmoma, etc.
If you want to make malmoma for 12 persons, take the thing in that way that you take for the blancmange save that it must be very sharp with juice of orange or of lemon, and with all these things that are in blancmanger and for enough persons similarly.
* no translation for the name of the dish malmoma.
XLV. Mortarolo (mortared food) for 12 persons.
If you want to make mortared food of batter for 12 persons, take 6 hens and 4 fresh cheeses and take 18 eggs and ½ pound of almonds and 1 (pound) of dates and half an ounce of intact ginger and half a quarter of cloves and three ounces of pine nuts peeled and make half a pound of sweet fine spices. And take the belly of pork and put it to boil and well cook and take the cheese that you have and a part of the spices and a quantity of parsley and mint and sage and of these things make a good batter, when the batter is done make of the mix tortelli and ravioli and fry in lard fresh and rendered and when they are fried dust with spices. And take hen and chop in pieces and fry in a frying pan and put in the said spices enough, and when they are fried in good pieces take the almonds peeled and whole and put over to fry and put over a little of water enough that it cooks well to completeness. And take the dates and pull out the bits or the bones within and wash well and crack (?mix/chop) well with ginger cut and cinnamon and cloves that the dates are fine. Take the batter and the hens that you have and the ravioli and the tortelli and prunes and whole pine nuts peeled and currants well washed and have a dish and put in a crust that is good underneath and another in half (top), and all these things that we have said put inside and put the crust over and dress with melted lard cleaned and well strained and make to cook with a little fire and above with a hot lid that it is little smoked. This dish should be sharp and potent of spices, to make for more persons or for less take the things in this same proportion, etc.
* A multistep dish whose instructions are very confusing.
Step 1 – make fried ravioli, tortelli of boiled pork belly, cheese, herbs and spices.
Step 2. Fry hen in spices then simmer with almonds in water
Step 3. Seed dates, chop and mash with spices
Step 4. Make a pie crust, layer in it: the ravioli, the chicken, the date paste, pine nuts and currants.
Step 5. Put the crust on, brush with lard. Put in a pan that can take coals on the lid (think dutch oven) and cook.
XLVI. Mortadelle (liver sausages) good and perfect,
If you want to make mortadelle take pork liver and its net (caul) or raixella (other cleaned casing), take the liver and let it boil and when it is cooked take it out and take good herbs and pepper and eggs and cheese and salt that is enough, and take the liver and these things and beat all well together in a mortar and make a paste and temper with eggs and a little of the cooking water of the liver and then take the net (caul) and make the mortadella (sausage) and when it is done fry it in good grease strained, when they are fried give them hot to the table.
* Raixella- no translation but possibly related to raso – to scrape. Context indicates a cleaned casing of some kind.
XLVII. Stuffed eggs.
If you want to make stuffed eggs, take the eggs and put to boil and make that they are good hard and when they are cooked take them out and put in cold water and peel and cut in half and pull out the yolks and take cheese fat the most that you can that is good and sweet and good herbs that you have well peeled and well washed and beat (to a paste) in the mortar. When they are well mashed, take the egg yolks and cheese and the spices and put in the mortar with the good herbs together and make a paste and temper with raw eggs and make that it is good and put a frying pan over the fire, and take the halves of eggs that you have and stuff with this paste and put to cook. When they are cooked pull off and powder with sugar and put them hot to the table and if you want to make relish, take etc.
XLVIII. Pastry of quail good and abundant
Take the quail and chop into pieces and make the crust and put them in and pine nuts and nutmeg and pieces of lard and then the cover, then when it is cooked put in muscatel wine and make it boil.
XLIX. Pastry of hen.
Pastry of hen: take the hen and chop it up and make the pastry crust and put in the pieces of the hen and mix spices and currants and pieces of lard and when it is cooked one has verjuice and beaten eggs together and put into the pastry and let boil a little.
L. Pastry of young pigeon.
Take the young pigeon and let them boil and chop up or if you want whole; then make the crust of pastry and put inside the pigeon with sweet spices and pine nuts and pieces of lard and sharp wine. If it is time, put it to cook, and then when it is cooked put verjuice inside and it is good and perfect.
LI. Pasty of meat of pork optimal.
Take the meat and cut it well and make the crust and put this meat inside, and mix onions well cut and powder of ginger; then one cooks it, have vinegar and sugar and a little water, put inside to boil etc.
LII. Pastry of kid good.
To make pastry of meat of kid take the meat and cut small and make the crust and put inside the meat with powdered cinnamon and pieces of lard; then when it is cooked put in broth and rose water and let it boil together.
LIII. Hen with sumac good and perfect etc.
If you want to make hen in sumac for 12 persons, take 12 hens and two pounds of almonds and take an ounce each of cinnamon and ginger and sloes (sosine) and half a quarter of cloves and half a pound of plums and a pound of sumac, and take the hens and put them to fry whole in cleaned lard, and when they are well fried add sweet spices and ginger whole and cinnamon whole and cloves whole and make well fried. More you add a little of water and take the sumac well cleaned and put to soak in fine vinegar, and take the almonds washed well and mash well and temper with water, and take the sumac and temper with the vinegar that it soaked in. When the hens are cooked with the other things, put in the sloes well washed, take the sumac and strain and the almonds such that it is thrown out the substance, (strain almond milk and sumac juice together) and put into the hens and make boil with enough sweet spices and a quantity of water and salt. This dish should taste of sumac and of spices and saffron and sharp with vinegar and sumac, and when it is well boiled together take off for serving and cut for serving and serve and don't put over the bowl anything, and if you want to make hen jointed (chopped up) make this same recipe.
* Florio translates sosine –as sloe or skeg, may not be an accurate translation. It is listed with the spices but it is a fruit.
LIV. Hen in white broth
If you want to make hen in white broth for 12 persons, take the hens that you have enough about 8, take two pounds and a half of almonds and one ounce and a half of white ginger pounded and half a pound of sugar and one pound and a half of fresh pig abdominal fat (sugnacio) and take the hen and boil it, and when it is boiled, take a quantity of fresh lard and fry them, and when they are fried powder with pounded ginger and sugar and cinnamon and cloves and a little verjuice and rose water enough that it has taste, and make boil a little and then move off for serving and put the hens in the broth, and when it goes to the table serve the hens for cutting, and the dish should be sharp and sweet.
* sugnacio is translated as pig abdominal fat, but is then mentioned next as the lard in which you fry the hens.
LV. Bread dish with verjuice.
If you want to bread dish with verjuice, take the millet (panico) ground and well washed of the husk and well peeled, and take two pounds of almonds well peeled and well ground and temper with clear water, and take three geese and put to roast, and put to the fire the milk of the almonds, the two parts and the millet well peeled and make to cook, and when it is well cooked take the fat of the geese and put it into the bread or other fresh fat of lard if it is of pork and a quantity of sugar and salt that is enough. This dish should be white the the most that you can, and you should put to the bowl and sugar it above and the geese in pieces with another sauce and it should be made as said. Take the liver of the goose and egg yolks boiled together and when they are cooked make a paste in a mortar with good fine spices and temper with the cooking liquid and a little vinegar and verjuice and cook, this sauce should be caramel colored.
* panico is translated by Florio as the grain called panik. Hoare translates it as millet.
LVI. Bread dish with meat good and perfect.
If you want to make bread dish with meat for 20 persons, take 8 pounds of loin of pork that is good and put it to boil; when it is cooked beat it well and put it in a "pignata" (pot), and take 36 egg yolks and four fresh cheese and enough juice of parsley and spices sweet and strong and saffron, and these things beat together and put in the "pignata" with also the millet and the pork mashed and cook together. This dish wants to be set and put to the serving bowl and put spices over, and if you want to make for less or for more take the things to this measure.
* pignata – Florio indicates that this is any kind of earthen pot or pipkin to boil meat in.
LVII. Hen stuffed and good.
If you want to make stuffed hens for 12 persons take the hens and thread on a skewer and then the skin well peeled, and then pull forth from within (debone, leave the skin intact, thread on a skewer?); then take a pound of almonds well peeled and crushed and strained; take in total 8 cheeses strained well sweet and take 12 eggs; take parsley and mint and other good herbs and wash well and paste well with the cheese, and take three ounces of spices without saffron, and take the herbs and cheese and eggs together and make a paste and temper with the almond milk and make that it is a paste in the mode of that of a fritter, and then take the chicken well washed and peeled and stuff in between the skin and the meat and within, and then close well so the filling does not come out and it will be good.
* another complex dish. My understanding is that the skin is loosened from the chicken and the bones pulled out (may also just mean the innards). The chicken is then stuffed inside and between the skin and the meat, making essentially a large chicken sausage. The only reference to cooking method is that of “infilare” to skewer, which appears to indicate that the resultant “chicken” is skewered and roasted.
LVIII. Bread of walnuts marvelous and good.
If you want to make bread of walnuts, take the nuts and peel and make a paste, and take good herbs and a little grated suet and spices sweet and strong and a little sugar, and put in the mortar with the nuts and make into a paste. Then take flour of wheat and make a sheet in the way of lasagne large and wide and thin, and put this batter over, and move (knead) all together and make in the way of a bread and then the dough it becomes soft in the way of a cake put to cook in the oven, and when it is cooked pull it out and let it chill.
LIX. Pepper sauce that is genuine.
If you want to make a pepper sauce for each meat or for fish, take white flour and honey vinegar and temper enough that it is soft and of the broth of the meat or fish that is fat and put it to boil with spices that are enough and if you want yellow add saffron and if you want white do not add it.
LX. Quinquinelli that is ravioli good and many.
If you want to make quinquinelli take almonds and peel and beat well and add sugar and if it is time meat add and mix well with the almonds and then make in the way of ravioli and then fry in good grease when they are fried serve hot.
* quinquinelli, name is a diminutive of five years and is essentially untranslatable.
LXI. Rice in a good manner.
If you want to make rice in the best manner that you can for 12 persons, take two pounds of rice and two of almonds, take half a pound of sugar; take the rice well peeled (husked) and washed and take the almonds well peeled and washed and crush and temper with clear water and strain well. Take the rice and put to the fire in clean water, when it is risen to the first boil and is well bubbling take away the water in the pot and put in the almond milk and make to cook over the embers slowly and mix carefully that it does not break; when the almond milk is soaked in and when it is cooked add a quantity of sugar. This dish should be white and very sparing and when it is cooked powder in the serving the sugar over.
LXII. Ravioli fried etc.
If you want to make fried ravioli for 12 persons, take 3 pounds of pork belly and two fresh cheeses strained and take 8 eggs and 12 or three ounces of currants and enough leaves of parsley and two pounds of fresh sumac and quarter of an ounce of sugar and take the pork belly and boil and then beat/mash well, and the cheese that you have well washed and well mashed with the currants well washed and the said spices and all these things; make a batter and make ravioli small and soft and put them to fry in grease; when they are fried powder with sugar and put them before the other "inbandixon".
* inbandixon- inbandare, to side, inbada, in delay – may indicate before other extra dishes or ending dishes.
LXIII. Ravioli ready to serve of herbs fantastic.
If you want to make ravioli of herbs or of other manners, take herbs and peel and wash well; then boil it a little and pull them out and squeeze away all the water and chop with a knife and put in a mortar and take cheese fresh and strained, egg and spices sweet and strong and mix well together and make a paste and then take the thin pasta in the way of lasagne and take a large measure and make the ravioli. When they are make put to cook and when they are well cooked powder above enough spices with good cheese enough and they are good.
LXIV. Ravioli in another way it is called “licaproprii”
Take fresh cheese well sweet and pull away the water well and then mash well and temper with the white of an egg and put in a little flour. Have fat of lard cleaned and make the licaproprii (cheese balls?) with floured hands and make them large and round like apples and make them cook enough, when they are cooked pull out of the fat and dust well with sugar and serve them hot to the table.
* These are fried cheese balls. I could not find any translation for licaproprii.
LXV. Armored turnips
To make armored turnips, put to cook the turnips in the fire; when they are cooked, peel and make thin slices and of sweet cheese make the slices thin and between each slice of turnip put one of cheese and let them well melt together. If you want you can put them in a hot pot above and they will be done; then powder with sugar; etc.
LXVI. Roast in sauce good and perfectly optimal
If you want to make roast in sauce, take a loin of pork and roast it and take raw and cooked eggs and paste together and then take good white wine and vinegar and put to boil in a pan and take pieces of the roast and put them to boil with it and put dates cut and pine nuts and saracen grapes (other dried grape or a specific variety) well washed and spices; and when it is cooked take from the fire and it will be good.
LXVII. relish reforced perfect.
If you want to make reforced relish, take cloves and cinnamon and ginger and a little of cardamom and hazelnuts peeled over the hot coals and a little of the crumb of bread and sugar; paste these things together and mix with vinegar; and it will be a good taste with any roast.
LXVIII. Relish for capons
IF you want to make relish for capons; take meat pure and fat and make it took and take livers of hens and make them cook and then grind to a paste and cloves with it; take nutmegs and ginger and then you want to temper with vinegar and with white wine and with water and if you want to that fat that is hot from the roast and put it to cook with this sauce and add enough sugar and it is done.
LXIX. Relish of white ginger for capons.
If you want to make white ginger relish, take white ginger and crush well peeled and take enough spinach and sage well peeled and these things paste together and put in enough sugar and temper this sauce with verjuice and with white vinegar. This sauce wants to be given raw with roast capons and with hens.
LXX. Orange relish
Orange relish for serving all the year and for giving with every roast and to make each sauce that you want; take a tuma (see note) of oranges and take these oranges well washed with good wine and a certain quantity of salt and when they are well washed make four parts of each and take the best wine that you have and a large barrel and put into it these oranges cut in quarters and put in a quantity of salt and hold them always cured so that they do not spoil; and they are perfect, good optimal.
* tuma - a measurement of some amount, the most similar is the "tomolo" used in sicily to measure oranges which corresponds to between 11 and 14 litres.
LXXI. Elderflowered dish (Sambugado) that is
milk with flowers of elder
If you want to make elderflower dish, take sheep's milk that is clear (clean), take flowers of elder and put to soak in this milk and let it soak enough, then strain it. For a quart of milk you want 12 eggs and beet together, then put to boil and guard from smoke.
LXXII. Elderflower dish (sambugado) to serve
in a soup dish most perfect and fantastic.
If you want to make sambugado to serve in a soup dish for 12 persons, take a pan of milk alive (fresh) of sheep or of goat and take a pound of rice and take a pound and a half of lard and take 3 ounces of sugar and take the flowers of the elder well mature and take the milk that you have well strained and put it to boil, and when it has boiled the first thing that you put in should be the ground rice and the second the flowers of the elder and the third the cleaned lard and the forth the amount of sugar, and put saffron to temper it. This dish should be hot and thick and sweet and flavorful of flowers.
LXXIII. Fine spices for all things.
Take one ounce of pepper and one of cinnamon and one of ginger and half a quarter (of an ounce) of cloves and a quarter (of an ounce) of saffron.
LXXIV. Sweet spices for enough things good and
The best sweet spices that you make one wants for lamprey in crust and for other good sweet water fish that one cooks in a pie and for making good broth and good sauces. Take one quarter of cloves and one ounce of good ginger and take an ounce of cinnamon and take enough leaves of all these spices and make a powder together how you please, and if you don't want to do more, take the things in this same ratio and it is marvelously good.
LXXV. Spices black and strong for enough sauces.
Spices black and strong to make sauces; take half a quarter of cloves and two ounces of pepper and take enough long pepper and two nutmegs and do as all spices.
LXXVI. Stew very short most perfect.
If you want to make stew very quickly, take six hens and fry in lard, then take from the lard when they are not too much; have almond milk tempered with verjuice, have ginger cut finely, have dates and cut in quarters and to give color to this dish add saffron and it will be a good dish.
LXXVII. Shoulder of mutton stuffed.
If you want to make shoulder of mutton stuffed two or four, take the the shoulder of the mutton raised with all the legs (?) and one takes two shoulders for twenty people and three for forty people, it is easy to make for more persons or for less, take the things to this same ratio. Take four nets (casings) of mutton and four spleens of mutton and take six pounds of loin of pork and one large pork liver and its net and take 20 fresh cheeses the best that you can have and take 36 eggs and take one (pound of) dates and one pound of currants and take half a pound of sugar and half an ounce of cinnamon and half of ginger intact and half a quarter of cloves and make half a pound of spices sweet fine well warm and make half a pound of strong spices. Take the shoulder and put to boil whole and let it well cook but not too much that the bones pull out; take it out and raise all the meat as much as you can and beat it well and put in enough parsley and sage and mint and marjoram, if one does have and with this batter put salt and beat the spices and a cheese and salted lard and fresh well beaten and eggs many that are enough. This should be one batter for it. Take the loin of pork well beaten and put with it 6 cheeses fresh all fat and put spices sweet and strong and saffron enough well stamped and eggs enough that it binds. This is another batter for it. Take the liver of the pork boiled, well beaten and put in the Mortar and pestle and mix with it a large onion and paste and a quantity of cumin and eggs and cheese and of the spices enough. This batter needs to be solid and make ravioli; take the net (casing) of pork and they need to be fried in fresh lard and powdered with sugar. This is another batter for it. Take spleens well washed and well scraped ; the one of these spleens stuffed with eggs and with cheese and with good herbs that are green, the other stuffed with cheese and with eggs and with milk and of all the good things that you might have that are white; the third stuff with cheese with eggs and with saffroned spices so that it will be yellow and a fourth stuff with the batter of the mutton that you have. When they are full, these you put to boil until they are cooked. When they are cooked cut two large morsels of each said one and the other two cuts to morsel of spana (bursting) of each, these should be fried. Take 11 dates and a pound of currants and take half a pound of sugar and half whole ginger and half a quarter of cloves, and make half a pound of sweet spices and well yellow and half of strong spices. When they are powdered together do in whatever way you like.
* Possibly the most complex dish to date. As far as I read it you make five mixes which you stuff variously into casings of some description and then boil. The last section which describes what to do seems to indicate that you cut them in halves and then fry and then powder with ground dates, currants and spices
LXXVIII. Salted dish (salamura) of eel optimal.
Take the eels and put them to roast over a pan with water in which one catches all the fat that one roasts out; when they are cooked take spices strong and salt and one puts them in this water and fat and chop the eels and put in this salty dish and if you want to add a little of cooked wine it will give a good flavor.
LXXIX. relish for whatever meat.
To make sauce called grated for each meat or without meat, take beaten eggs and almond milk, a little verjuice: so add the bread and rose water and broth and temper every thing together and spices sweet and make boil every thing together and put in a little saffron or rassa di bote (see note) and it will be special.
* rasso di bote is translated as raschiatura di botte literally scrapings of the barrel. This can be taken as wine dregs, a mixture of bitartrate of potash and tartrate of lime formed as a deposit from wine.
LXXX. Relish for fish.
If you want to make fish sauce that one calls sapeto (tasty) fried in good oil, take currants and mix them with verjuice and with vinegar and take onions and boil and chop with a knife then fry with this sauce and put spices that do not have saffron and put galangal enough and make sure that the vinegar is not too much.
* sapeto – no translation, most likely to be from sapore, to taste, hence tasty.
LXXXI. Green sauce for kid and other boiled
Take parsley and ginger and cloves and cinnamon flowers and a little salt and pound every thing together and temper with good vinegar; make that it is temperate and they won't want to wait to taste.
* this recipe calls for fiore de canella which literally translated is flowers of cinnamon.
LXXXII. Sauce good for meat of mutton or of
The best sauce that you can make if this meat is boiled or roasted. Take the fat meat well cooked and well beaten and mash in a mortar with enough leaves of parsley and mint and sage and rosemary and other good herbs that you may have and mix with this meat and put cinnamon and cloves and pepper and temper this sauce with the most fine vinegar that you have.
LXXXIII. Relish of rue or of rocket
Take the seeds of the rocket and skin and cooked eggs and sugar and ginger and nutmeg and ginger and mix everything together and temper with good vinegar and it is good with every meat excellent.
LXXXIV. Most perfect relish of the tartars.
Take the garlic peeled and cook in water, take almonds and cinnamon and ginger and cloves and sugar and egg yolks cooked and mix everything together and temper with vinegar. This is a good sauce for roasted pork and other meats.
LXXXV. Relish for meat boiled or roasted.
If you want to make “salomono” take the seeds of anise and almonds peeled and ginger and nutmeg and sugar and mix everything together and temper with vinegar and this is a good sauce to serve with mutton boiled or roasted.
LXXXVI. Relish confected, etc.
To make confected relish take bread and roast it and put it to soak in vinegar; take cloves and grains of paradise, ginger, cinnamon, nutmeg and cardamom and sugar and mix every thing together and temper with vinegar and good verjuice and it is done.
LXXXVII. Relish of prawns.
Cadelo, that is relish of prawns. Take the prawns and boil and pull out the tails, peel then paste all the other (the meat) and put in a little water, then strain them. Take a little of good herbs and take egg yolks and almonds or crumb of bread and paste well in the mortar and temper with verjuice; put in a little water if it is too vinegary and put spices sweet and strong and oil, poke tails and put in this relish that you have cooked and made boil when you adorn by hanging (basically dress the relish with the tails of the shrimp).
LXXXVIII. Saracen style sauce
If you want to make saracen style sauce take almonds, currants, ginger, cinnamon, cloves, grains of paradise, cardamom, galangal and nutmeg; mix every thing together and temper with verjuice; this is a good relish.
LXXXIX. Relish for all gross meats.
If you want to make good fatty dish, take the meat and let it boil, then take parsley and fry in grease of pork, then take the meat in pieces pea sized and fry well with the parsley, then take almond milk and egg yolks and saffron and verjuice and sweet spices and beat all together and put over this meat and this is good with any type of meat.
XC. Sauce for whatever meat.
Take the flowers of fennel not at evening, then take an egg yolk well hard and take rosemary and mix with these flowers and temper everything together and it will be good.
XCI. Carmeline sauce optimal
To make optimal carmeline sauce, take almonds peeled and mix and pound and strain (the almond milk), take currants and cinnamon and cloves and a little crumb of bread and mix every thing together and temper with verjuice and it is done.
XCII. Sartramone (?) or sauce for each meat.
To make good sartramone for meat or for fish, take an onion and boil, then fry in pork fat, then take eggs well beaten and put spices sweet and strong and saffron and cloves, and make that it is thick; this is a good relish for each meat.
XCIII. Sage dish
Take sage and pound in a mortar and take out the juice; have eggs and beat well with this juice and if you want add cheese, than have a cooking pot or pipkin with enough strained greased and put it on the coals and then through the batter within and mix well thick to the end that it is cooked and it is perfectly good.
XCIV. Tart of fish
Take three large tench or one large eel and three ounces of dates fine and half a pound of currants and two ounces of peeled pine nuts and 2 ounces of spices sweet and strong; take the “thenca” well washed and cleaned and crack the back and pull away all the pulp (meat) and take this raw pulp and pound, and paste enough leaves of parsley and of marjoram and fine oil and of the spices well soaked and well full make sausages long like ravioli and fry in oil and enough boil and take the tench that remains and put it to boil with enough parsley and when it is well cooked paste all save the head and put spices and oil and paste and take this filling and make ravioli small with thin pasta make fry in oil and powder with spices; this tart needs to be cooked in a frying pan.
* Although the title says tart, there is little reference to a pie type dish. My impression is that you make large sausage type ravioli from the eel, make stuffed pasta ravioli from the tench, then put these into a pastry case with dates, pine nuts and currants.
XCV. Tart of herbs.
If you want to make tart of herbs for 12 persons, take 6 large cheeses and take a large quantity of herbs that is “blede” (see note ), parsley, spinach, mint and two pounds of salted lard and eight eggs, take these herbs well cleaned and well beaten and well giving out their juice, take the cheeses and chop (mix) with herbs well large cut and take the lard that you have well beaten to the most that you can take the eggs that you have and mix these things together and put into the crust in the “testo” and make yellow the crust that is over this tort you should want it to be fat with enough cheese and you if you want to make for less people, take the things in this same ratio.
XCVI. Little tarts of scabwort (see
note ), etc.
If you want to make little tarts of scabwort with broth, take capons for 12 persons, take 3 pounds of pork loin and take three cheeses dried and fine and three ounces of spices fine and sweet and strong ground and well yellow and take two pennyworth of scabwort and take 10 eggs and take the loins of pork and put to boil with the scabwort well peeled, and when it is well cooked beat the loin and the scabwort together and do not add all the scabwort. Take the cheese that you have and paste with the loins and add the spices and the eggs within enough that binds and make that it doesn't taste too much of scabwort and mix together everything and make a batter and then make the small tortelli in sheets of yellow pasta. These tortelli should be well yellow and potent with spices.
XCVII. Fantastic tart of prawns.
Take the prawns boiled and pull the pulp from the tails and take a quantity of good herbs beaten well and put with this batter broth of almonds (almond milk?) and spices fine and currants and of this batter make tarts thin between two crusts and above should be strong with sweet spices and currants and within it should be well yellow.
XCVIII. Tart of mushrooms good and most perfect.
If you want to make tarts of fungi middling, take the mushrooms whole peeled and well washed, make morsels large and squeeze out all the water and take salted lard melted and strained and but to fry with the mushrooms and enough water that they don't burn (scorch) and when they are just cooked, pull them out in a basin and mix with them a quantity of cheese and of eggs and put this batter in a testo (covered pan) with a crust very thin that is very strong but must be thin and yellow and powder with spices and enough of mushrooms and little of eggs and make it cook wells.
* A testo was a covered metal pan that functioned much as today's dutch ovens do, it was placed in the coals with coals on the lid to create an oven type environment, wherein a pie would cook from above and below.
XCIX. Tart with elderflower taste (sambugata), etc.
Sambugata tart for 12 persons. Take a large pot of milk and take two pounds of loin fresh and take 12 eggs and three ounces of sugar and take the flowers of elder mature and take the milk well strained of water and take the eggs that you have and the sugar and take the songiazo or lard and take flowers of elder and mix these things together and put in the crust and this tart should be fat and sweet and it is good.
C. Tart windowed for 12 persons.
Take the flour most what that you have in amount of three pounds and take two ounces of sugar and take a pound of almonds and 36 walnuts good and half a pound of currants and 25 dates and half a quarter of cloves and take a good quantity of almond milk; take the flour that you have mixed with water such that it is well thick and take the pan and grease well with oil and of this flour make a crust in it powder with sugar and the said spices, and take the nuts crushed and dates tiny (well chopped) and the currents well washed and cloves ground and all these in the crust over each one saves part of the crust and puts above all these things an it is a tart.
* This recipe actually tells you how to make a crust. In this case a simple mix of flour and water, the pan is greased with oil the filling put within.
CI. Tart of spelt, etc.
To make a tart of spelt for 12 persons, take two pounds of spelt and two pounds of lard and a quart of milk of sheep or goat, and take six fresh cheeses and take 10 eggs and take the spelt well broken (cracked) and well washed and put it to boil in water, when it is well boiled, strain out the water and break them (mash the cooked grain); when it is well broken, take the lard well beaten the most that you can; take the cheese well mashed and the milk that you have and the said eggs and mix these things in full and put in between two crusts in a hot testo (see note ). This pie should be well fat and it is good.
CII. Tart of scallions or of onions, etc.
If you want to make a tart of these things, take that which you want and let it well boil. Take first the water out and then squeeze out the water and finally chop/mash them and take fine lard and beat well; take eggs and fresh cheese and saffron and beat all together and make the tart.
CIII. Tart of cheese and eggs without lard.
Take the cheese and cut it small like fingers and put in a bowl with the eggs and enough butter of cheese ( see recipe # X ) or fresh (standard butter) or fat without lard and put spices and make the crust thin and make the pie.
CIV. Tart ready to serve and good, etc.
Take the belly of pork and let it boil then paste it well, then put in a chatino (bowl?) a little fresh cheese and mix them well together and add spices sweet and strong and peeled pine nuts and currents and saffron and temper with eggs. For 3 pounds of meat you want five of cheese.
CV. Tart of garlic, etc.
Take the garlic and peel and boil; when they are enough cooked put to soak in cold water then pound and put saffron and cheese enough that is fresh and beaten lard and spices sweet and strong and temper with eggs and put in currants and then make the tart.
CVI. Tart of milk
Take the cheese and grate and take eggs and spices and good herbs and beat with the eggs and temper with milk and make a crust like it has been said and above.
CVII. Tart of gourd dry.
Take the gourd and let it boil, then paste it well with lard, then put in a bowl; then take three cheeses and pepper and saffron and make them paste and temper with eggs and make the tart.
CVIII. Tart of fresh beans.
Take the beans and cook them with pork belly, then paste the beans in a mortar and the belly with a knife (chop fine), then put the best spices that you may have and put in much cheese that it is half or less a third of the batter, and mix old lard and make the tart and it is most perfect.
CIX. Tart of fresh fava optimally good.
Tart of King Manfredo of fresh favas. Take the favas and peel, then cook in good milk, then strain, take the belly of pork cooked and beat with a knife (chop fine), and then put the favas and meat together, take the spices sweet and strong and saffron and put in the bowl and mix with good fresh cheese and make them paste, and then take the tart and put in this mixture into the pastry, and then put for half and above slices of cheese sweet and fat, etc.
* The fava/meat paste is layered with cheese in the way fava/cheese/fava/cheese, ending with a layer of cheese on top of the mix.
CX. French tart good and optimal
Take the meat of pork of the shoulder that is lean and fat and paste it well with the knife (mince) and mix spices sweet and strong and temper with eggs and make the tart and mix saffron above and let it well cook.
CXI. Tart Manfreda good and fantastic.
Take belly (stomach/gizzard) and liver of hens and take pork belly and paste together with a knife, then put pepper, have a pan and fry them, then pull out, let them chill, then put eggs and make the crust, then put in a pan and let them cook enough.
CXII. Tart of parmesan good.
Parmesan tart for 25 persons. Take eight pounds of pork loin and take 12 fresh cheese and take 6 dried cheese and 26 eggs and half a pound of sweet spices and 6 hens and 4 capons, and take the loin of the pork, boil well when it is cooked beat it and beat it with enough quantity of mint and parsley; and take 6 cheese fresh and 24 eggs of those that you have and salted lard much that is enough and well beaten and spices and saffron enough and of these things make a batter well beaten and well yellow (item 1). And take two fresh cheese and a white of an egg and paste and make white ravioli to have 9 with a crust of pasta (item 2), and take two fresh cheese and one dry and mink and parsley and paste all together and make 12 ravioli green (item 3). Take 4 cheese and bake beautiful slices across and take the hens and joint and make of one menbro (menata, a little handful?) two and put to fry in salted lard and well cleaned and strained and spices into to fry and more (item 4) 1 (pound) of dates well dressed with cinnamon and with ginger and cloves and put these ravioli to boil in water; (item 5) then they are done pull out and powder with sweet spices or put into alone and put a crust above. This tart should be well yellow and well fat with lard and ponderous (heavy) of spices and you make make it for more or for less persons and if you make in a testo (see note ) of copper it wants little fire; in a testo of earth (pottery) you want enough fire.
* In this recipe there are 4 hens and 4 capons unaccounted for, item 1 is never mentioned again. There is no indication of how the tart with all its ravioli is and batters is finally assembled.
CXIII. Hungarian tart for 12 persons.
Take a capon well fat and take loin of pork large and two onions large and half a pound of fine sweet spices and take three pounds of fresh grease that has not been salted and take much flour that would be three breads, the best, that you may have, and take the capon and the loin of pork and make small morsels (chop) and of the two onions make small morsels and put these things to fry in fresh grease in quantity, and of the said spices and saffron enough and a little salt; and when it is well fried put in a beaker of water that it cooks to completion, and take the flour and blend with fresh water salted and a little of crude salt and mix very strong (knead well), and when it is well mixed, take a testo (see note ) of copper well greased with this fresh lard that you have. Take the pastry mixed and roll out and make it thin, and put two or three thin sheets of pastry with lard in-between ending at 18 sheets, and then take this batter of capon and of other things one over the over in this way, and take other more sheets above this filling well layered each with lard and make a crust over for vardia. This tart wants little fire beneath and good fire above, you make make it for more or for less, take the things to this measure.
* The pastry here is made very thin and layered, much in the way that filo pastry is layered today. The result would be a crispy, flaky pastry.
CXIV. Tart of Romania
To make a Romanian tart for 12 persons, take 6 hens and 4 fresh or dry cheeses and 12 eggs and 30 dates and one pound of currants and one of slows and half an ounce of whole cinnamon and half an ounce of ginger and half a quarter of cloves and half of saffron and two ounces of pine nuts peeled and four ounces of sweet spices well yellow; take the hens well washed and chop in pieces and put to fry in lard cleaned and strained and the first time that you put with the hens add sweet spices, and take the fresh cheese that you have and make ravioli enough and boil in water. When they are cooked powder with fine spices and when the hen is fried enough put a best of water, and when they are just enough cooked, put a cheese cut and strained and 8 egg yolks and cinnamon and ginger red; take cloves and pine nuts peeled and currents well washed and of spices and saffron enough and guard this thing from too much fire until it is well cooked and make a thin crust in the testo ( see note ), and put these things within and ravioli and each thing within apart, and put a crust over thin and well yellow. This tart wants little fire while cooking or the crust incorporates the batter, etc.
CXV. Tortelli in the way of white fritters for
To make tortelli white for 12 persons, take a pound of almonds and a quarter of hazelnuts and of walnuts, and take half a pound of sugar and take the almonds well peeled and the hazelnuts/walnuts well peeled and paste well and mix enough sugar and paste and of this batter make the fritters and make them small. Take flour and saffron and mix with water and make that it is soft and yellow and fold inside the tortelli and fry in good oil and powder with sugar and put them before the other meats.
* This recipe carries instructions on how to make the pasta that so many of the ravioli are wrapped in. A simple mix of flour, saffron and water.
CXVI. Tortelli in the way of white fritters for
lent good and most perfect.
Take a quantity of good gourd well boiled, take almonds well peeled and paste and add a quantity of good herbs well pasted and good oil and of spices and of these things make a batter and make tortelli small and fry in oil and powder with sugar and it is done.
CXVII. Tredura (?)
To make tredura, take the whites of leeks and put them to boil whole and then beat with a knife well chopped (chop very fine); then fry them with the fat of meat that you choose; take bread and grate and put to soak in hot water; take a piece of meat and beat the meat and bread together with a knife, then take beaten eggs and enough saffron and beat together and put in this the fried leeks and spices enough and it will be good.
* question is do you cook again after adding eggs and the leaks. It is next to many other fried ravioli recipes so the implication may be that you make ravioli of this mix and fry them.
CXVIII. Dish to make a good stomach.
Take apples of quince and boil and peel and paste, and take almond milk and temper these quinces and put to cook; when it is cooked put spices sweet little and sugar enough.
CXIX. Dish called lemony
To make this dish for 12 people, take 6 fat hens, 6 capons and three ounces of fine spices and three of almonds and three of fine sugar and 25 dates and take 12 oranges that are well juicy and half a pound of prunes and take the hens/capons that you have and put to boil, when they are cooked take a pound of lard clean and well strained and put to fry the hens/capons and when they are fried these things powder with the said spices and the sugar and almonds that you have well washed and ground and tempered with the broth of the capons that is thin (fat less) well strained and put this milk to boil in a pipkin for it. When it boils put in the said spices in quantity and then put the prunes well washed and then put in the dates well washed or make tow parts of each (do the prunes and dates separately) and then put in the saffron tempered. When it is boiled this dish, put in the capons and the oranges and it should be thick and heavy with spices and sweet with sugar; put the capons on a dish and the relish in a bowl.
CXX. Cooked wine.
To make cooked wine, take ruddy wine the most fine that you might have and good honey; put to boil together with enough flowers of cinnamon, and boil enough that it reduces by a third and for 4 beakers of wine you want one full of honey.
To make good gourds, take the dried meat and let it boil well in oil not too much; take peeled almonds and grind (make almond milk) and put into the gourds and make it white, or if you want yellow and put in currants
CXXII. Hens with fennel fantastic.
Hens with fennel for 12 people. Take 7 hens and 6 capons in the style of whole hens, take hens/capons and fry in lard well cleaned and strained and take the root that is the radish of fennel and of parsley well washed and fry them with the hens/capons and three ounces of fine spices and put the said spices to fry with the hens and when they are well fried pull out the lard in quantity, when it is not too much and put in water and vinegar much that dresses above (covers the hens?). When they are cooked, take egg yolks 18 and take their livers well pounded/mashed and spices with saffron, a quantity of verjuice and vinegar and pull out the cooked roots, take out the hens/capons and pour out the sauce and put this sauce to boil. This dish should be yellow and potent with spices and should have the flavor of fennel and put the chickens in a taiero, and the sauce/relish in a bowl. (serve the chickens and sauce separately).
CXXIII. Hens with fennel in another way.
Take the hens and joint and put them to boil but not too much and fry in lard; take almonds, flowers of fennel (top part of fennel not the bulb) and mix every thing together and temper with the boiling water of the hens and then put it in a bowl and add sweet spices.
CXXIV. Hens assabecho (no translation) very good.
Take the hens and let them boil and cut in half and fry in lard, take currants and mix them with verjuice and vinegar and with broth of the hens take onions and boil and batter (chop fine), then fry them with that sauce/relish and put in spices that don't have saffron and put in galangal enough and make that it is not too vinegary.
CXXV. To make cervellade (sausage) bressane
Take pounds 25 of meat of pork in which one does not have the neck/collar nor the loin or legs, but is the meat of the ribs or shoulder, or other pounds 20 and pounds 5 of fat (see note below) that is as much of the things more or less dependent on what you want to serve, and beat it well cut with a knife (mince), then have 15 ounces of cheese of candia (white or candied) and 15 ounces of salt of Sardinia or pound of salt of chioza and 6 ounces of red pepper and make that the salt and cheese are well chopped and incorporate this batter together. Take entrails (casings) and fill and let them stay of 2 of "saxone" and more that it is cold and time clear more is better (allow to dry), then put to the smoke, or put in the batter saffron and spices, but when it is more it is better in this ratio.
* This recommendation for meat types is based on the fat content of the meat. Essentially the cuts of shoulder and ribs are very fatty and no extra fat is needed. If the leaner cuts of leg, collar and loin are used the recipe recommends that you take 20 pounds of these meats and 5 pounds of pork fat.
CXXVI. Tart Lavagnexe for 12 persons
Take six hens and 6 cheeses fresh or dried and 18 eggs and 2 pounds of lard and a little saffron and a good quantity of parsley and a little of mint and a little of sage and take the hens and put to boil enough that they are cooked and then joint, and take the cheese well washed and made into a paste, and take the lard that you have well dried as much as you can, and take the eggs and put them in this mix enough that it is not too hard, nor too soft and take the saffron and temper and put it in the mix and then put everything in between two paste (two sheets of pastry) and put to cook in a frying pan and make the tart, and make the crust green of the said herbs and well fat without spices and it is good optimal and most perfect, etc.
CXXVII. To confect fresh almonds and fresh persian
nuts and walnuts fresh that you want to be "zovenette", neither hard, nor
Take the said (nuts) and peel and hole, the walnuts you want six "buxi" (unknown quantity) and of persian nuts six, and almonds four. They should be put in water and change the water much until they are soft, then boil in water, the walnuts want to be boiled a half hour and the persian nuts and almonds when they commence to become tender boil have a quarter of an hour, then one puts them to dry in the shade and the wind in a fruit basket or under a colander for three days: the persian nuts and the almonds for two of them then stuff the holes with cloves, cinnamon, saffron; then make boil in honey for the space of 6 pater nosters, then take out of that honey and boil in another honey much that the honey it is cooked; then put above the honey mix spices, fine and put in an gally pot in the sun for the space of fifteen days well closed. The persian nuts should be done in the said way save that you want to boil in the first honey much that they are cooked; one does not want that they change. Have note that the almonds to not want to dry half of april in a hot spot, else they will burn and become too hard.
CXXVIII. To make hotch potch of "monege"
Take eggs beaten a lot well and a little salt; take as much eggs as you want and with this flowers of flour (wheat flour) that you want make the said, or paste with these beaten eggs without other water. If you want of honey for each 10 eggs you want a good "chosselier" (no translation, another unknown measure) of honey, if you want with sugar for each ten eggs you want an ounce of sugar. They should be very tame and made immediately and have in mind that they need to be cooked immediately, because take note that neither wind nor sun (touch them) that sooner they spoil. They should be cooked in a pan that is not being smoked, thus you make them cook like that and make them and guard the earth that does not become thus, make them well clean.
CXXIX. To confect gourds in two ways
Take the gourds hard that you have and peel and make two pieces and boil in a lot of water until they are tender. Have 9 vases vedriati (vedretta small glacier, therefore cold) and take all from the first vase and make it move immediately to the second, then the third, then the forth, ending at the ninth vase that the gourds remain well cold in that water, then the put them in the wind in the air without sun for three days. Take them and let them boil a little in honey, take them from that honey and put them in another honey that is cooked. If you want to make them more delicate, put some sugar to boil with the honey, have in mind when it is done the said gourd it is cooked, put in a cold bowl and let it in the air until it is "aretrato" (dry) all that honey and one can put away safely where you want, let stay fifteen days and pull from the honey; guard from the sun. Item, if you want to make in another way, put in a vase and every day put boiling water in and every day change the water for eight days, then make it boil much that it begins to be tender and make it in the way of the other, except don't put in cold water with the nine vases.
CXXX. To make orange dish good and delicate
Take the peel of the orange and make in those pieces that you want and pick clean well within (remove white pith), put to soak for 15 days then boil in much water until they are tender, let them dry for three days, then put them in the honey that you want and boil for three days (bring to a boil every day for three days), then let it boil a little and change, then take that honey and put with the other with the spices: but first the spices must be put within and boiled with the skimmed honey, boil well until the honey is well cooked, then leave a quantity of days in the air without sun.
CXXXI. To make orange dish battered in another
Make much as that of above, except that one does not change the honey and they (orange peels) should be well battered with a knife (finely chopped), then cooked in the honey and have in mind that they want to be cooked much that the honey it is almost hard and you want little fire and temperate and it cooks together with the honey and it is done.
CXXXII. Confection of apples apio (honeyed)
of of paradise apples if you want to make immediately and grated they may
be made how you like.
Take the apples and peel, then grate, guard that the seeds don't go in the grated stuff and let to dry for two days. The juice that makes the apples leave with the apples; strain the apples grated and for every three pounds of apples put three pounds of honey and leave it to sit for two days, then let it boil always mixing, with spices, enough that the honey is cooked, have in mind that the spices should be added when the confection is nearly cooked, otherwise they scorch. Then pour it on a table or over a bathed stone (wet stone) and make in the way of a thick leaf (sheet) less than half a finger (width); then let it chill and make in the way of little cakes or wafers in small pieces and set on a dish with leaves of laurel (bay leaves) underneath and above, with the other hand you put leaves in-between, and if you want to put spices between leaf and leaf it will be very good. Have in mind that it wants at the least to boil for an hour and it must be always mixed well and guarded from smoke.
CXXXIII. To make marmalade of quinces good
Take the quinces and peel and put to boil in lots of water and cook until they are come down; take a basin holed or the grater, and grate very fine that you take all that is good, and guard that the seeds don't go into the grated quince. Save for 3 days in the air this grated mix before you put in the the honey, then for each pound of grated quinces you want to have 3 pounds of honey. Bring to a good boil together when the honey is cooked add spices fine and if you want for the mixture, put to boil a little of sugar, for 3 pounds of quince marmalade you want to have 6 ounces of sugar in change of spices. When it is cooked tip it onto a table bathed with fresh water, and make it in the way of sheets of pasta large and just less than half a finger thick, and make in the way of wafers and put in a "albarello" (kitchen salt pot, refers to a specific storage vessel) with spices and with laurel: that it does not go bad you must boil two hours until it is cooked always stirring. This quince marmalade you want to cook always well mixed with a flat wooden stirrer, etc.
CXXXIV. To make a healthy and good meal of “iola”
Take much iola about an egg in size, and take much pork belly and let the belly cook and chop it well with the knife and then in a mortar. Likewise to the same make of the "iola" thus cooked and pasted. Take two good cheeses and 6 or 7 eggs and make a paste (with the pork belly) and put to fry in a pan with grease and it will be a good healthy dish, and if you add a “chavo” (specific measurement? no translation found) of milk this dish will improve, if you do not possibly have fresh pork belly, take brain of veal, or of “boi”, they are also good and have in mind that the dish should be of spices fine and sugar and not spoilt, etc.
CXXXV. Good dish
Take flour, eggs, cheese grated: take spices and grind in a mortar: then make with the hands in the way of claws as long as a finger: then let them cook: and above the bowl powder with spices and with cheese: and serve them hot: And if you would like .. [Missing the end]